Geographical Terms


  1. Geographical Terms


  • Alluvium-Silt sediment carried by rivers and deposited on land to make it fertile.
  • Anticyclone-High pressure winds blowing outwards from the centre, clockwise in the northern hemisphere and anti clockwise in the southern hemisphere.
  • Antipodes-A region on the opposite side of the earth.
  • Aphelion-See physical geography.
  • Archipelago-A group of islands-example Malaysian Archipelago.
  • Artesian wells-The wells are to be found when a water bearing bed is sandwiched between two impervious beds. When a boring is made into the lower part of the bed, the pressure of water is sufficient to cause the water to overflow at the surface.
  • Atmosphere-Gaseous envelope around the earth expanding above it from 200-300 miles.
  • Atoll-Coral reef of the shape of a horse shoe with a Lagoon in the centre, e.g.. Lakshadweep islands.
  • Axis-An imaginary line passing through the centre of the earth and facing the North and the South Poles.


  • Barysphere-Innermost lining of the earth.
  • Basin-Area of land drained by a river: dock for anchoring ships.
  • Biosphere-Organic life on earth, all animal and animate objects.
  • Bore-Tidal wave which breaks in the estuaries of some rivers with great force and noise.


  • Canyon-A deep valley cut by a river running down from a mountainous region.
  • Cape-Terminating point of the neck of land extending into the sea.
  • Chinook-Warm dry wind along the eastern side of rocky mountains in Canada and U.S.A.
  • Cloudburst-Clouds breaking into heavy downpours with thunderstorms.
  • Confluence-When two or more-rivers meet at a place: the confluence of the Ganges, Jumuna and Saraswati at Allahabad.
  • Cold water-A cold current flowing between Greenland and America.
  • Coniferous Forest-Ever-green trees and leaves like the pine tree.
  • Continental climate-The climate obtaining in the interior of the great continents.
  • Continental shelf-A part of land submerged under the sea not more than 600 ft. deep – the richest fishing area.
  • Contours-Lines connecting parts of the same altitude above sea level.
  • Coral-Marine polyps (small insects oozes secretions which under current pressure of the sea or ocean form into stiff mass of coral islands; found near Australia.
  • Crop Rotation-Crops grown one after another after harvesting to keep the land under cultivation and retain its fertility.
  • Cyclones-Winds blowing in spiral form from outward high pressure to inward low pressure, and bringing rain and change in weather.


  • Date Line – (International Date Line) It is at 180 meridian from Greenwich; a ship while crossing the line eastward goes forward a day while westwards it goes back a day.
  • Deciduous Forests – Trees with broad leaves which fall off in autumn, found in temperate regions.
  • Delta – Deposits of alluvial soil forming triangular shape at the mouth of a river where it falls into the sea, e.g., Nile delta.
  • Denudation – Wear and tear of rock due to natural causes.
  • Depressed seas-Inland locked seas whose levels are low and inflow of water less.
  • Diurnal Range-The amount of variation in any elements as air or temperature during 24 hrs.
  • Dof star-It is the nearest star to the earth and the brightest.
  • Dry Farming-Raising of crops in areas which have conserved the moisture, having limited rainfall and no irrigation.
  • Doldrums-The region within 5°N and 5oS of the Equator where the air is rising and the pressure is low, a region of high rainfall, high humidity and uncomfortable temperature.
  • Dolomite-Semi transparent crystalline mineral containing double carbonate of calcium and magnesium.


  • Eclipses-Caused by the revolution of the earth and the moon. When the earth comes in between the sun and the moon, a lunar eclipse occurs and when the moon comes in between the earth and the sun, a solar eclipse is caused.
  • Equator-The imaginary line dividing earth in two equal parts, the Northern and the Southern hemispheres.
  • Equinoxes-When the days and nights are of equal duration the days are 21st March and 23rd September.
  • Erosion-Gradual washing away of land by rain, river water, glacier or wind.
  • Estuary-A broad channel where river and sea water mix such as Jumes Estuary.


  • Fog-When warm moist air comes in contact with cold, water vapours are condensed on the dust particles floating in the air near the surface of the earth. This is called Fog.
  • Fossil-Remains of plants and animals preserved in rocks or the earth; these help to study evolutionary changes in animal and  plant life.
  • Frost-Frozen dew due to earth’s temperature below 32°F at night


  • Glacier-It is ‘a huge mass of ice, on high mountains that is formed by the piling up of snow, which is made compact by its own. weight. They move till they come to a point where temperature causes them to melt.
  • Geyser-From the deep earth crust, a fountain of hot water sprouts through a hole and is thrown high up by the force of steam formed below down in the hole.
  • Gulf stream-Oceanic stream which flows through the eatern coast of North America, then it moves towards the western coast of Europe, raising its temperature considerably.


  • High Seas-That area of the ocean which is outside the limits of territorial waters of the states.
  • Hinterland-InLand region from seaport.
  • Horizon-The circular line where the sky and earth or the sea seem to meet.
  • Hurricane-A violent gale with occasional thunder and lightning.
  • Hydrosphere-Liquid envelope which surrounds the earth: the watery surface consists of oceans, seas, bays, gulfs, and lakes.


  • Ice Age-It is the period when ice sheets and glaciers covered large areas of the earth.
  • Iceberg-A large mass of a glacier floating in the sea.
  • Igloo-Hut of snow, wherein the Eskemos live.
  • Isobars-Lines on a map joining the place having the same barometric pressure.
  • Isohyets-Lines joining the places having equal rainfall.
  • Isotherm-Lines on a map joining places having the same mean temperature.
  • Isthmus-Narrow piece of land connecting two land masses, e.g., Isthmus of Panama.


  • Lagoon-A shallow lake formed at the mouth of a river or sea sand mound separating it.
  • Lithosphere-The solid globe of the earth in which we live as distinguished from atmosphere and hydrosphere. It covers 29 p.c. of the surface of the earth.
  • Leeward-A nautical term, meaning the sheltered side of a ship-that is the opposite side to that.from which the wind is blowing.


  • Magma-The molten rock.
  • Meridian-Imaginary lines joining the two poles that cut the equator at right angles.
  • Midnight sun-Sun is visible even at mid-night as in Arctic regions.
  • Mist-Water drops present in -the lower layer of the atmosphere caused by condensation of water vapours.


  • Oasis-A spot in a desert made fertile by the presence of water.
  • Orbit-The path of the earth or other planets round the sun.


  • Plateau-Elevated land rising abruptly 3000 to 4000 ft, above sea level.
  • Prime Meridian-From which longitude is measured it passes through Greenwich.


  • Rain Gauge-Instrument for measuring rainfall.
  • Rainshadow-An area which has a relatively higher average rainfall.
  • Roaring Forties-North west anti-trade wind between Latitude 40 and 50 degrees south.


  • Sea level-To measure altitude of land the level of the ocean at moon tide is taken as a standard.
  • Sidereal day-23 hrs, 56 mins, the time taken by the earth to complete its revolution on its axis in respect of the fixed stars.
  • Simoons-Hot winds with clouds of sand that blow from the desert over Arabia and N. Africa.
  • Sirocco- Wet or dry wind that blows across the Mediterranean to its northern shores.
  • Snow line-The high altitude, 18,000 ft. where snow gathers and remains without meaning.
  • Solar day-The period of time between two successive appearances of the sun at the same meridian.
  • Sounding-To determine the depth of the sea.
  • Standard time-See Physical Geography.
  • Stratosphere-About 10 miles above the earth, the outer layer of the atmosphere.


  • Terai-Hot and swampy forests at the foothill of the Himalayas.
  • Tides-Rise and fall of the sea water caused by the gravitational pull of the moon.
  • Trade winds-Winds in the tropics between 20oN and 300S blowing towards the equation.
  • Tributary-A stream falling into another stream.
  • Tundra-Flat plains round the shores of the Arctic Ocean, temperature below freezing point.


  • Volcano-An opening in the earth’s surface forming a hill from which the heated material ejects.


  • Westerlies-These winds blow between 30° to 60° N and S of the Equator.


  • Zenith-The highest point in heaven.


  1. Political Terms


Absolutism-The Principle of absolute government, the governed having no representation, vote, or other share in the administration.

Activists-There is a political group who wants to take active steps towards the objectives of the group rather than merely to proclaim a programme.

Amnesty-From the Greek word meaning forgetfulness or oblivion.  It is an act whereby the State pardons political or other offenders.  Punishments threatened or imposed on them may be cancelled and those already in prison released.

Anarchism-From the Greek word anarchia (non-rule), a political doctrine advocating the abolition of organized authority.  Anarchists hold that every form of government is evil and a tyranny.  They want a free association of individuals, without armed forces, courts, prisons, or written law.  Their methods have varied greatly; some have advocated peaceful transition to anarchy and others have demanded revolution.

Annexation-The act whereby a state takes possession of a territory formerly belonging to another state, or to no state at all.

Anti Clericalism-Opposition to organised religion and, in particular to the influence of the Roman Catholic Church in politics.

Autarky-In the economic sense it conveys the idea that a country should produce at home anything it requires and should cease to depend on imports. The driver for autarky was particularly strong in Germany before the Second World War, being adopted with a view to making Germany blockade proof.

Authoritarian-The term denoting a dictatorial system of government, as opposed to a democratic system based on popular sovereignty.

Autonomy-A word of Greek origin (‘self law’) meaning self-government.

Adjournment motion-Moved by a member of the Legislature to suspend normal business of the House to discuss a matter of urgent public importance.

Apartheid-Policy of racial discrimination practised in South Africa segregating the “Non-Whites”.

Agent Provocateur-Means provoking agent; a person sent during political or social conflicts into the adversary’s ranks, in the disguise of an adherent to provoke compromising actions.

Attache-A person attached to an ambassador having special knowledge of military, cultural or commercial affairs.


Balance of Power-The theory that the strength of one group of powers should be equal to the strength of the other group, thus preventing any hegemony and ensuring peace.

Bamboo Curtain-The barrier often said to be formed by the frontiers of China since the establishment of the Communist regime and the Chinese People’s Republic.

Bipartisan Foreign Policy-A foreign policy on which both government and opposition parties agree. The expression is used with special reference to the U.S.A. and U.K.

Blockade-The prevention of supplies from reaching an enemy by sea, either by placing ships outside an enemy port or by an attempt to cut off an entire country.

Black Power-The declared aim of the militant wing of the movement for Civil Rights in the United States of America.

Bolshevism-An alternative name for Communism.  In Western countries the word Bolshevik is generally used in a derogatory sense, and sometimes to describe any radical.

Brainwashing-A treatment of persons designed to change their outlook. The expression was once limited to, and probably originated in, Communist treatment of prisoners aimed at altering their political and moral outlook on the western world. It is now often used loosely to describe any change in attitude on part of a prisoner resulting in sympathy with his captors, views or a readiness to confess to crimes.

Buffer State-A small state established or preserved between two greater states to prevent direct clashes between them.

Bureaucracy-Used as a term for (a) the rule of the class  of high officials (b) this class itself, hence the word bureaucrat.

By-election-It is held when there is a vacant seat in the Legislature or local body during the normal life of it.

Bilateral Agreement-An agreement arrived at between two parties.

Brain Drain-Talented persons, scientists, technicians and others of a country go away and settle abroad for better employment opportunities.

Bicameral and unicameral system-The form of legislature which has two chambers the Upper House and the Lower House whereas the unicameral system has one House of Legislature.


Cabinet Government-Council of Ministers forming the Executive responsible to the Legislature.

Coalition-Two or more political parties combine to form a government when one party does not constitute the majority to do so.

Caucus-A small group of leaders of a political party who control its affairs.

Closure-Closing a debate in parliamentary bodies.

Capitalism-The economic system under which the ownership of the means of production is concentrated in the hands of a class, consisting of only a minor section of society, and under which there is a property-less class for whom the state of their labour-power, as a commodity; is the only source of livelihood.

Capitulations-Treaties by which the subjects of one state when entering another state remained under the jurisdiction of their own government, which was exercised by local councils.

Centralism-A political system under which the whole country is controlled from a central point, as opposed to decentralized systems of administration such as federalism and regionalism, under which local units (states, provinces) enjoy a greater or lesser degree of autonomy.

Cession-The giving up of territory by one state to another state.

Coexistence-Existing together, or with each other. The term is used with special reference to the ability or desire of the western powers led by the U.S.A and the eastern powers, led by Russia to exist without going to war with each other, though not necessarily in harmony.

Crypto-Communist-A secret sympathizer with, or member of a Communist movement.

Cold war-A state of tension between countries in which each side adopts policies designed to strengthen itself and weaken the other, but falling short of actual or ‘hot war’; the term is frequently used to describe the relationship which has existed between the western powers and Russia since 1947.

Charge D’affaires-An official in diplomatic mission who acts in the absence of the ambassador.

Consuls-Commercial representatives of a government posted abroad.

Condominium-Joint rule of a territory by two or more nations.

Casting vote-Deciding vote of the Presiding Officer when there is a tie.

Constituent Assembly-An elected assembly for the purpose of framing a constitution for the country.

Coup d’etat-Bringing down a government by the use of force.


Deadlock-A stage making further negotiations impossible.

De Facto Recognition-An act whereby a new government or state is recognized as being actually independent and wielding effective power in the territory under its control, although not yet willing nor fuI1y above to carry out international obligations.

De Jure Recognition-Unconditional acknowledgment that a new government or state is independent, wields effective power in the territory under its control, and is willing and able to carry out its international obligations.

Demagogy-Appeals to the prejudice of the masses, usually by means of lies and half truths.

Democracy-From the Greek demos, people, and kratos, power, meaning government by the people.

Desegregation-The process of ending segregation.

Detente-A diplomatic term meaning the. cession of strained relations between states. It represents an earlier state in the development of good relations than a rapprochement.

Dialectical Materialism-The combination of the dialectical method with a materialistic philosophy. It is politically important because it is the philosophical basis of Marxism.

Dictatorship-The absolute rule of a person or group without the necessity of the consent of the governed.

Disarmament-Reduction of armaments.

Dollar Gap-An adverse balance between a country’s receipts from, and its payment to, the group of countries which pay, and can demand settlement of, debts in dollars.

Dominion-A Self governing member state of the British Commonwealth.

Doves-Name used to describe those Americans who advocated negotiation, or a reduction of the U.S. military commitment in Vietnam in order to terminate the War. It is employed to contrast with the Hawks, i.e. a term originally applied to those who supported an intensification of the war.

Doyen-A French word meaning dean, or senior member of a body, and used to do scribe the senior member of the diplomatic corps.

Durand Line-The border line between Afghanistan and Pakistan.


Envoy-Rank below an ambassador, but in diplomatic mission all the same.

Extradition-Handing over a fugitive to the country which wants him for trial and justice.

Egghead-A term used to describe the more intelligent and thoughtful members of the population.

Embargo-An order preventing or impeding the movement of ships of a foreign power, either by detaining them in a port or by forbidding them access to a port. The term is also used to describe any suspension of trading with a particular state or in particular commodities.

Encirclement-A description used by Germans to describe the formation of an alliance between western and eastern power to prevent German expansion.

Escalation-Process in which each supposedly limited and controlled military measure by one country is met by supposedly equally limited and controlled counter-measure; each country hopes that its own measure, or controlled response, will not result immediately in the other replying with an extreme measure, such as a nuclear weapon.

Ethnographical Principle-The principle that all persons of the same race or language should be united in a common state.


Fourth Estate-It applies to the Press.

Filibuster-Holding up Bills in the Senate (U.S.A) by organising continuous opposition speeches.


Genocide-Mass killing of a minority or a religious community. e.g., extermination of the Jews by Hitler and the Bengalese of Bangladesh under the military rule of Gen. Yahya Khan.


Hot Line-Direct teleprinter link between Kremlin and White House to check accidental war.


Instrument of Accession- A legal document confirming that a state has federated or joined another state.


Mandate-Authority given to a state to look after the administration of another’s territory or territories, a system of colonial administration adopted by the League of Nations.  The victorious powers after World War I received the mandate over some territories of Germany.

Mid-Term Election-An election in between the general election; it may be necessitated by the failure of constitutional machinery or to find out political stability or not of the ruling party.


Ordinance-Legislative measure promulgated by the Head of a State.


Plenipotentiary-An ambassador or envoy with full discretionary powers to act at his posting on behalf of his government.


Quorum-The minimum number of members of a legislature or any other body required to be present in the meeting to make its proceedings valid.


Secular-A state is secular if it accepts all religions as equal and shows equal respect to all religious faiths.

Snap Division-A vote or division taken unexpectedly; it may not correctly indicate respective strength of different parties.

Satyagraha-A Sanskrit expression meaning ‘faithful obstinacy’ used to describe non-violent resistance to authority.

Secession-Formal withdrawal from an organization, such as a party, church, or state.

Segregation-Setting apart; a term used with special reference to the political and social disabilities of Negroes in the U.S.A.

Separation of Powers-The custom, common in democratic countries, of dividing the powers of government into three legislative, executive, and judicial. It implies that none of these three powers is able to control or interfere with the others.

Slump-A fall in prices or demand, usually the result of some failure in spending.

Socialism-A political and economic theory according to which the means of production, distribution and exchange should be owned and controlled by the people, everyone should be given an equal opportunity to develop his talents, and the wealth of the community should be fairly distributed.

Spheres of Influence-Certain countries, or parts of countries in which another state, without annexation, desires to exert exclusive influence.

Sterling Area-A group of countries which decided in 1931, when the U.K. went off the gold standard, to tie their currencies to sterling rather than to gold and to hold their currency reserves in the form of balances with the Bank of England.


Theocracy-A state based on religion e.g. Saudi Arabia.

Terrorist-One who resorts to violence and terror to advance his political aims, which frequently include the overthrow of the established order.

Totalitarian-A term denoting a single party dictatorial system of government, based on the totality of the state’ as opposed to the liberal conception which allots to the state only certain functions, reserving others to the free decision of the individual. The totalitarian state extends its influence over the whole of life, private as well as public, and exacts full submission of the individual to its demands.


Veto-The right to reject.  Generally exercised by the chief Executive on a Bill passed by the legislature.


War Crimes-Those acts of an enemy soldier or civilian which may be punished when the offenders are captured. They consist of breaches of the laws or customs of war.


Zionism-A belief in the need to establish an autonomous Jewish community in Palestine.


  1. Literary Terms


Accent-Stress on a particular syllable in mode of pronunciation.

Allegory-Narrative description of one thing under the image of another.

Alliteration-Beginning of two or more words in close succession with the same sound.

Anagram-The change of one word or phrase into another by the transposition of its letters.

Anthology-collection of selected works of various authors in a single book.

Aphorism-A brief pithy saying.

Apologia-A statement by a writer on the nature of defence.

Assonance-A correspondence in sound, or a kind of rhyme.

Autobiography-A process, in lithography by which a drawing or handwriting is transferred from paper to stone.

Autobiography-The term is derived from the three Greek words, autos, meaning one’s self, bios, life, “graphein,” to write. Autobiography, thus, means, life of a person written by himself.


Ballad-A short narrative poem or popular song.

Blank verse-Unrhymed verse.

Bombast-High sounding language.


Character-The term is generally applied to the personages in a literary work.

Classic-A standard work of an author.

Comedy-Drama or a play that has a happy ending.

Couplet-Two lines of a verse rhyming with each other.


Dialogue-Conversation between two or more persons.

Diatribe-violently bitter speech of criticism.

Dirge-A song of funeral or mourning.

Drama-A series of deeply interesting events, exhibited in a theatre.


Eclogue-Derived from a Greek word “ekloge” means a short pastoral poem.

Encyclopaedia-A work containing information on every department of knowledge or on a particular subject.

Epic-A heroic story of poetry relating to important events and introducing supernatural features.

Epigram-A concise and pointed saying.

Epilogue-A short speech or poem at the end of a play.

Etymology-Account of formation of words of a language.

Euphemism-A figure of rhetoric by which an offensive thing is designated in an indirect and milder term.


Geriatrics – is more focused on the medical aspects of aging on the human body and mind.

Gerontology – focuses on the social, societal and mental implications of aging on people.



Humour-Faculty of saying or perceiving what excites amusement.


Iambus-A metrical foot of two syllables, the first a short and the second a long one.

Idiom-A mode of expression peculiar to a language – a dialect.


Lay-A song or short narrative poem.

Literature-Science of letters, whole body of literary composition.

Limerick-Nonsensical stanza in five lines.

Lyric-A short poem expressing emotions.


Malapropism-Ludicrous misuse of words.

Metaphor-A figure of speech in which a term is transferred to something, it does not literally apply to this.

Music-The science which treats harmony, art of expressing or causing emotion by melodious and harmonious combination of notes.

Musician-One who is skilled in music.


Novel-Fictitious story in book form representing human beings, their activities and adventures.



Ode-Lyric poem of lofty style.

Oxymoron-A figure of speech in which two ideas of opposite meaning are combined to form an expressive phrase.


Poet-Author of a poem.

Poetry-Art of apprehending and interpreting ideas by the faculty of imagination.

Poetic Licence-A poet’s irregularity in grammar and metre.

Pun-A play upon the similarity of sound in words of different significance.


Renaissance-Revival of classical learning.

Rhythm-Measured beat or flow of words and phrases.

Romance-Any fictitious and wonderful story, which goes beyond the limits of real life. A false story of love.


Saga-Collection of ancient Scandinavian myths and legends of heroes.

Sonnet-The term applied to fourteen-line poems with a definite rhyme scheme.

Stanza-Group of lines of verse rhyming as a unit.

Syntax-Part of grammar, dealing with the arrangement of words in a sentence.


Tautology-Needless repetition of the same idea in different words.

Thesis-A subject for a scholastic exercise.

Triolet-An eight lined poem rhymed a b a a a b a b lines 4 and 7 repeating 1, and 8 repeating 2.


Zeugma-A figure of speech by which an adjective or verb is applied to two nouns, though strictly appropriate to only one of them.


  1. Economic Terms (Including Trade & Commercial)


Arbitration-Reference of a dispute, generally of industrial concern between the employer and his employees to a disinterested party in order to arrive at some form of settlement.

Annuity-Annual payment of a fixed amount or payments at an interval of a stipulated period. This scheme was introduced in India to take effect from 1st April 1964, compulsory deposit for income over Rs. 15,000 per annum.

Ante date-A cheque, bil1 or any other document is antedated when they bear the date prior to that written on them.

Appreciation (of money) -When the purchasing power of money or its value rises by the fall in prices.

Articles of Association-Guiding rules and regulations of a limited company.

Assets-Property of any kind available for discharge of the liabilities.

At sight-Written instruction on bills or notes that they become payable at presentation.

Absorption-When a small company amalgamates with a large one it may completely lose its identity and become merely part of the larger company by which it has been absorbed.


Balance of trade-The difference between exports and imports of a country. It is considered as favourable when exports exceed imports and unfavourable when imports exceed exports.

Bandh-A form of protest, stoppage of all economic, business and office work to exert pressure on the government to concede demands.

Bank Notes-A Promissory Note issued by a bank payable to the bearer on demand.

Bank rate-The rate at which the Central Bank (R.B) discounts first class bills of exchange.

Barter-Trade by exchange of one commodity for another.

Bear Bull-A wishful speculator in the stock market who believes the prices will fall and Bull is the speculator who believes the prices will rise.

Bill of Credit-The writer of the bill takes the obligation of payment of the money, the advance of which has been authorised by him to a specified person.

Bilateralism-When two countries agree to a special trade, and payment between them.

Bill of Exchange-It is an unconditional order signed by the maker, directing a certain person, to pay a certain sum of money only to, or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the bill.

Bimetallism-A monetary system of gold and silver used as standard and coined at a fixed ratio.

Bond-A written monetary agreement between two persons, or two Governments or a person and Government or Corporation or between a Corporation and Government.

Bonus-Additional payment of dividend to shareholders or extra gratUity to employees.

Budget-Estimated income and expenditure for the ensuing year.

Buyers’ Market-Where and when buyers are in excess of sellers.


Carat-Measure or weight of precious stones about 4 grams; gold is purest when it is 24 carat.

Ceiling on Land Holdings-Maximum limit of land one can hold in possession. The present Congress government has recommended a ceiling of 12 to 18 acres per family.

Central Bank-Is banker to the Government’ to Commercial banks, and manages currency and credit policy of the country. It is the State Bank of Pakistan.

Clearing House-Daily meeting place of the clerks from banks where they deal with bills to exchange them and clear off outstanding differences.

Collectivism-Collective ownership of major productive resources by the society or the state.

Cooperative Farming-Farming lands pooled in one unit by the farmers owning them and divide the harvest in proportion to their land put in the pool without the loss of proprietary rights.

Collective Farming-In this form of farming the land does not belong to the individual farmer the land belongs to the state; the farmer is only an employee on land.

Crossed Cheque-Across the face of the cheque two parallel lines are drawn with ‘& Co’ written in between to ensure payment to the drawer through his account in the bank.




Death Duty or Estate Duty-Tax on property inherited at the death of its former owner; levied in India since 1953.

Debentures-Company certificate to its creditors promising payment of a stated sum after a specific period of time at fixed rate of interest.

Deflation and Inflation-Decrease in money circulation with prices coming down in its wake and creating the fear of unemployment .etc. is called Deflation. And inflation creates a reverse condition.

Devaluation-Deliberate reduction in the value of home currency in its relation to foreign currency to reduce imports and promote exports.

Dumping-To capture new markets generally, when unsaleable goods at high price in some market are sent to some other market at low price obviously to avoid lowering home price.


Excise duty-Duty charged on goods manufactured within the country as on sugar, matches, cloth, intoxicants etc.


Fiduciary Issue-Paper money put into circulation not covered by any reserve of bullion.

Free on Board-Expenses of putting goods on board have been borne by the seller and the price of the goods supplied at the port includes freight, insurance charges etc.


Gherao-A device of harassment pressed on an employer by his employees the employer, being kept confined in his office or residence for unlimited time.

Gift Tax-Taxes on inheritance, succession as well as gifts in order to limit an individual’s freedom to pass on his property intact to his successors.

Gilt-edged Securities–Stock on which interest is sufficiently high and safe.

Gold Standard-Currency based on free coinage of gold which, it is supposed, will be sold and bought at fixed price in terms of the local currency.


Hard Currency and Soft Currency-A term used for a currency which is in short supply in relation to the demand for it by other countries. The term was applied particularly to the U.S. dollar. Soft currency is a currency in plentiful supply on the foreign exchange market as a result of the country concerned being inclined to import more than its exports.


Index Number-The variations in the price level of essential commodities over one period of time in relation to the price level as had obtained in one period in the past, are indicated by index Number.

Intensive Cultivation-This occurs when the output per acre is very high as a result of the employment of large amounts of labour and capital with relatively small amounts of land.


Kaffirs-A stock exchange term for South African gold mining shares.

Kennedy Round-A term used of an all round reduction of tariffs made by members of G.A.T.T. and agreed upon in 1967, so called because the negotiations were undertaken at the suggestion of the then U.S. President who had been impressed by the tariff reduction achieved by the E.E.C. and E.P.T.A.


Layoff-Labour is affected by a layoff when it is declared surplus on account of fall in production.

Labour Intensive-A form of production requiring a high proportion of labour in relation to the other factors of production employed. CF-Capital intensive.

Laissez-faire-The doctrine that State interference in industry and commerce should be kept to a minimum.

Legal Tender-A form of payment which by law a creditor is compelled to accept in settlement of a debt.

Lend-Lease-Under the Act of 1941 the United States gave assistance to Great Britain and its allies during the Second W orId War by supplying them with all kinds of goods that might directly or indirectly, aid their war effort, such goods being regarded as lent or leased and not given, though most of these goods were expendable. In return these countries had to provide reciprocal assistance to the United States, which received in return about 12% of the amount it had supplied.

Letter of Credit-A document authorising a bank to pay the bearer a specified sum of money; it provides a useful means of settlement for a foreign trade transaction, the purchaser establishing a credit in favour of his creditor at a bank.

Limited Company Limited Liability-In which the shareholders’ responsibility is limited to the extent of the value of their shares or limited liability.

Lock out-As opposed to workers’ strike it is the employers’ closing the factory to force the strikers to their terms of settlement.



Moratorium-The granting by one government to a debtor government for an extended period of time in which to repay a loan or pay the interest on such a loan.

Materialism-The view that in all their actions men are inspired only by economic motives, it was the basis of Karl Marx’s concept of history.

Mixed Economy-A term used to describe an economic system, such as that of Great Britain, where some planning of production is undertaken by the State, directly or through its nationalised industries; and some is left to private enterprise.

Mobility-The ease with which a factor of production can be transferred from one occupation to another.

Monopoly-In the strictest sense of the term a monopoly occurs when there is only one producer of a commodity for which there is no substitute.


National Debt-This is the debt owed by a government to people and institutions within its own borders (internal debt) and/or to foreign creditors (external debt).

Negotiable Instruments-Bills, notes, cheques, bonds and other documents which are on transfer by delivery from one person to another with a legal right to property therein free from all claims.

“Nation of Shopkeepers” -Napoleon’s contemptuous reference to the British nation.

“Not Negotiable” -The marking of these words on a cheque or postal order is a safeguard in case it is stolen, since it gives the holder of it no better right to it than the previous holder.


Octroi-Municipal tax on articles coming inside a city.

Open Cheque-Which has not been crossed and is payable on presentation.

Open credit-Credit available, from bankers without security.

Overhead cost-The cost over and above the fixed cost such as that of machinery, plants and land.

Open Market-A market in which there are no restrictions on buyers and sellers, and where prices are determined by supply and demand.

Optimum Population-This is that population which provides a labour force, which, when combined with the other factors of production, yields the maximum output per worker.


Patents-Exclusive right granted under the Patents Act to one who has sought for his invention, new and useful.

Preference Shares-Holders are entitled to a fixed dividend before any distribution of profits can be made among ordinary shareholders.

Public Sector-State enterprises or undertakings i.e., those concerns or industries which are nationalised and run by the State.

Paper Gold-A colloquial term for Special Drawing Rights.

Pari Passu-With reference to a new issue of shares it means that the new shares will rank equally for division with an existing similar issue.

Paternalism-A term used for the assistance given in the nineteenth century by the Government of France and Germany to the industrial development of their countries.

Planned Economy-Generally taken to mean a State planned economy.


Rationalisation-It implies the method or technique of organisation, designed to secure the minimum of waste either of efforts or of materials, in short to reduce production cost and improve quality.

Reflation-The easing of credit restrictions to encourage and expansion of production, it is the milder sort of inflation that accompanies the upward swing of a trade cycle.

Rig the Market-Action by large speculators on the stock exchange aimed at temporarily setting off the ordinary market forces and taking advantage of this situation to make a profit.

Runaway Inflation-An alternative term for Hyperinflation.

Run on a Bank-Heavy withdrawals of cash by depositors of a bank who have lost confidence in it.

Rebate-It is the refunded part of payment made or commission, say, towards an insurance policy for example.

Royalty-A lump sum payment for certain kinds of ownership or privilege e.g. a share of the sale price of the book paid by the publisher.


Shadow Cabinet – A group of specialised critics in the official opposition party.*

Sinking Fund-A portion of the profits of a company or the revenue of a government set apart to create a fund and for paying off a debt or loan or redemption of a liability.

State Trading-When a state undertakes the purchase and sale of certain commodities in order to control market prices and to assure a fair deal both to the producer and consumer.

State Trading Corporation-Was set up in 1956. The corporation assists in the equitable distribution of raw materials at reasonable prices to various industries.

Standard Money-The face value of the coin corresponding to its intrinsic value in exchange.

Sterling-Pound Currency note of England.

Sterling Balances-Accumulated debt of England incurred during World War II which she owed to other countries. The debt balances have been liquidated since. The countries that are members of the sterling area keep sterling balances in London. These are required to assist the making of payments arising out of international trade, and also for the working of the monetary arrangements of the sterling area.

Slump-A period of high unemployment.

Social Cost-The disadvantages, suffered by the community frem an enterprise, such as impurities from a chemical works, smoke from factory chimneys or traffic congestion resulting from the excessive expansion of an urban area, etc.


Tariff-A protective device of a country for safeguarding its industry against trade competition from outside.


Wealth Tax-It applies to individual’s wealth exceeding Rs. 2 lakhs in value, and to Hindu undivided families having more than Rs. 3 lakhs.


  1. Medical Terms


Allergy-Susceptibility to particular article hay fever, asthma, eczema, are allergic diseases.

Anaesthetic-A kind of drug when used produces temporary insensibility to touch and pain e.g. chloroform.

Antibiotics-A kind of drug prepared from mould like organisms which destroy bacteria and prevent their growth e.g. Penicillin.

Antibody-An obscure but important substance produced in and by the living body that protects it against disease infection.

Antidote-A remedy for counteracting the effects of poisoning.

Autopsy-Post-mortem examination of a human body.


Blood Bank-Storing of human blood through donations, for administration in cases of emergency.

Blood Groups-In transfusing blood from one person to another it has to be tested that the blood is of the same group, otherwise administration of unlike blood group would prove fatal. Human blood has been classified into four groups-A, B, AB and O. Group O is universal, it can be given to anybody.

Bronchitis-Inflammation of the tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs.


Cardiograph-An instrument which charts the movements of the heart.

Cataract-Clouding of the lens of the eye and it prevents clear vision.

Chromosomes-Within the nucleus of every animal or plant cell, containing hereditary factors called genes.

Cholera-Bacterial infection causing frequent loose motions and vomiting, drying of the tissues and painful crampes – water borne disease and infections.

Colour Blindness-Despite normal vision the patient is unable to distinguish one colour from the other, generally red and green.


Deficiency diseases–Caused by the lack of proper ingredients in the diet, usually applied to lack of vitamins or fat in food; common diseases are beri beri, rickets, scurvy.

Diphtheria-An acute infectious growth of white slab, affecting the membrane in the throat followed by breathing difficulty. It is a fatal and mostly child disease, now arrested by anti-diptheria serum.


Endemic-A disease localised on account of surrounding conditions, e.g., malaria is endemic in Assam.

Enzymes-Organic catalysts accelerate chemical processes occurring in living organisms. For example, fermentation of sugars into alcohol.

Epidemic-A disease spreading in a locality and quickly to other parts also.


Genes-The ultimate biological units of heredity that determines physical inheritance and constitution.

Gout-Painful inflammation, especially of great toes.


Hormone-Chemical substance produced by a ductless gland.


Metabolism-Breaking up and building of the cells in the human body, the breaking is Metabolism and building is anabolism. Myopia-Short sightedness, unable to see distant objects clearly and able to see distinctly nearer objects, corrected by concave lenses.


Parasite-Animal or plant getting substance from another.

Penicillin-A new antibiotic drug obtained from moulds and this drug has revolutionised the whole medical treatment.

Photo-synthesis-The phenomenon by which the plants assimilate their food from the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight.

Plastic Surgery-The science of restoring or altering human tissues by grafting.


Rickets-A disease due to the deficiency of vitamin D, common in children. The bones get softened, bent and deformed.


Scurvy-A bleeding disorder mostly among sailors.


Tetanus-A kind of bacillus found in rich soil or the dung of a horse affecting nervous system, may prove fatal–prevented by anti -tetanus injection.


Vitamins-Complex organic compounds present in food and essential for the maintenance of health. The five principal vitamins A, B, C, D


  1. War and Military Terms


A-Bomb-Atomic bomb (See “Nuclear Science”).

Ace-Pilot, with five or more victories.

Adjutant-An army officer (not above the Major rank) who assists superiors.

Admiral-A Naval officer of the highest rank in the Pakistan Nayy.

Aerial Camera-It is a camera for taking aerial photographs.

Aero bomb-A bomb dropped by an aeroplane.

Aeroplane-A flying machine, just similar to power driven kite.

Air Base-A place from where the air force operates.

Al-Fatth-The liberation organisation of Palestine mujahideen, was headed late by Yasir Arafat.

Ambush-Men in hiding for making a surprise attack.

Amphibian-A machine which follows and destroys the enemy submarines in the sea. It can also be operated on the land.

Armistice-An agreement during the war to stop fighting for a fixed time.

Army-Large body of men armed for warfare.

Arsenal-A building where arms and ammunition are made or stored.

Artillery-Cannon, mounted guns and the troops who use them.


Battalion-A unit of Infantry.

Battery-Administrative unit of horse and field artillery.

Blockade-During the war, the closing of enemy coasts by preventing ships from leaving or reaching it.

Bomarc-A ground-to-air missile especially designed to intercept attacking aircraft. It has a 400 mile range.

Bren Gun-A new type machine gun, which can be used in no time, originally made at Bren (Brunn) in Czechoslovakia

Brigade-It consists of three or four battalions of infantry.


Calibre-Size of bore of gun, or inside measurement across (diameter of) gun or other tube or of a bullet.

CEP-Circular Probable Error. A measurement of the accuracy with which a missile hits a target 50 per cent of the time.

Chevron-V-shaped mark, worn by sailors; soldiers and airmen to identify rank.

Chief of General Staff-One of the four principal Staff Officers. He also assists the Commander-in-Chief.

Colonel-An Army Officer above a Major, commanding a regiment.


Dyna-Soar-A boost glide space bomber.



Fail-Safe–An Air Force policy governing the firing of nuclear bombs. It prohibits an airborne nuclear bomber from striking a target without a positive order to do so.

Flak-Anti-aircraft fire.

Flotilla-Fleet of small warships.


Garrison-Troops stationed in town or in a fortress.

General-The second highest rank after Field Marshal. G.H.Q. -General HeadQuarters.

Gestapo-Body of secret police in Nazi Germany.

Gun-Weapon consists mainly of metal tubes from which missiles are fired by explosion.

Gun-Powder-Explosive mixture of sulphur, charcoal and saltpetre.

Guerilla-War carried on by fighters not members of a regular army.


Hilal-i-Jurat-It is the second highest award, which is conferred on officers for courage or devotion to duty performed in the face of the enemy.


Kilomegation-Energy released by a nuclear explosion equal to 1 billion tons of the chemical high explosive T.N.T.

Knapsack-A bag containing all the necessary items which a soldier carries strapped to his back.


Lancer-The term applied for the cavalry soldier armed with lance.

Lithium deuteride-A metallic hydride used in thermonuclear weapons.


Machine Gun-Firearm which discharges rifle bullets or small shells with great rapidity.


Nishan-i-Haider-The highest award in the list of military awards. It is awarded to those members of the Armed Forces who have performed acts of great heroism or of most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme danger.

Nishan-i-Haider-It is equivalent to Victoria Cross in the British Army.


Ogpu-Secret police of Soviet Russia (1922-34).

Ordnance-Department responsible for military supplies.


Parachute-An apparatus extending like an umbrella, used for descending of a falling body.

Pip-An identification mark on a military officer’s sleeve, showing the rank.

Pistol-A small firearm, can be easily held in one hand.


  1. Boat-In the Great war a ship used to trap submarines.


Regiment-Permanent unit made up of battalions, commanded by a Colonel.

Revolver-Pistol with a revolving chamber, capable of firing a number of times without reloading.


Seaplane-An aeroplane fitted with floats to enable it to  rise from and alight on sea.

Shell-A metal case, filled with an explosive, to be fired from a gun.

Sitara-i-Jurat-The award conferred upon officers, Junior Commissioned officers and warrant officers for gallant and distinguished services in combat.


Tactical Nuclear Weapon-A low yield nuclear weapon approximately kilotons and under.

Torpedo-A vessel carrying a charge of high explosives and used as a weapon by aircraft and all naval warcrafts.



U-Boat-(Unter sea boat) Name given to a German submarine in the Great War.


Zero hour-Point of time at which the start of war is imminent.


  1. Sports and Games Terms

America cup-International yacht racing trophy.

Amphitheatre-Large circular building, used by the Romans for the display of various games and shows. The Romans built various amphitheatres, amongst them. The Colosseum at Rome was the most famous building, completed in AD. 80. It had a seating arrangement for 87,000pectators.

Ashes, the–Cricket trophy, mythically held by the winning team in any series of Test Matches between England and Australia. The cricket matches between both countries are held after every two years.

Athlete-One who is especially trained to physical exercises.

Athletic-The art of wrestling, jumping and running.

Baccarat-Gambling card game.

Baffy-Wooden headed to the golf club with a sloping face.

Bails-Cross pieces placed on three stumps. This completes the wicket.

Beighton Cup-Cup for hockey contest held at Calcutta.

Bowled-The term bowled is used when a batsman is out by the ball striking the wickets.

Bye-In cricket, a run (or runs) scored off a ball untouched by the batsman.

Caddie-A Golfer’s attendant.

Dice-Small cubes marked on each side with dots from one to six, so arranged that one or ace is opposite six, or deuce, two is opposite five and three opposite four.

Discus-Oval shape piece of metal the throwing of which figures as an item in the Olympic Games.

Grand National-The principal cross country horse race in Great Britain. Its course is 4 m. 856 yards, and is run at Aintree (Liverpool).

Javelin-A light spear for throwing.

Mallet-A small wooden hammer, used in croquet or in polo.

M.C.C. -Marylebone Cricket Club, the governing body of cricket in Great Britain.

Miss England II-British Racing Motor Boat.

Muttra Cup-Trophy for hog hunting.

Olympic Games-See heading “Olympic Games”.

Pawn-A piece in chess.

Punt (Football) -Kick the ball, before it touches the ground, when let fall from the hands.

Stadium-Open Air arena for athletics. The place where Games are played.

Stump (Cricket) -One of the three upright wooden pieces of wicket at cricket.

Test Match-The term is generally used for the cricket matches. It originated from England-Australia Test matches.

Volley-In tennis, hard return of ball before it touches ground.

Walker Cup-The Golf Championship of amateur teams between Great Britain and the U.S.A; played every two years alternately in each country.


  1. Some Scientific Terms

Allergy – Susceptibility to a particular thing. Hay fever, asthma, eczema are allergic diseases.

Anaesthetic – A kind of drug when used produces temporary insensibility to touch and pain e.g. chloroform.

Antibiotics – A kind of drug prepared from mould like an organism which destroys bacteria and prevents their growth e.g. penicillin.

Antibody – A substance produced in and by the living body that protects it against disease infection.

Antidote – A remedy for counteracting the effects of poisoning.

Blood bank – Storing of blood through donations for administration at the time of emergency.

Blood Groups – In transfusing blood from one person to another it has to be tested that the blood is of the same group, otherwise, administration of unlike blood group would prove fatal. Human blood has been classified into four groups – A, B, AB and O. Group O is universal, it can be given to anybody.

Bronchitis – Inflammation of the tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs.

Cardiograph – An instrument which charts the movements of the heart.

Cataract – Clouding of the lens of the eye which prevents clear vision.

Chromosomes – Within the nucleus of every animal or plant cell, containing hereditary factors called genes.

Cholera – Bacterial infection causing frequent loose motions and vomiting, drying of the tissues and painful cramps – Waterborne diseases and infections.

Colour Blindness – Despite normal vision the patient is unable to distinguish one colour from the other, generally red and green.

Deficiency Diseases – Caused by the lack of proper ingredients in the diet, usually applied to lack of vitamins or fat in food; common diseases are: beri-beri, rickets, and scurvy.

Diphtheria – An acute infectious growth of white slab, affecting the membrane in the throat followed by breathing difficulty. It is a fatal and mostly child disease, now arrested by anti-diphtheria serum.

Endemic – A disease localized on account of surrounding conditions e.g. Malaria is endemic in Assam.

Enzymes – Organic catalysts accelerate chemical processes occurring in living organisms. For example, fermentation of sugars into alcohol.

Epidemic – A disease spreading in a locality and quickly to others parts also.

Genes – The ultimate biological units of heredity that determine physical inheritance and constitution.

Gout – Painful inflammation, especially of great toe.

Hormone – Chemical substance produced by a ductless gland.

Metabolism – Breaking up and building of the cells in the human body, the breaking is Metabolism and building is anabolism.

Myopia – Short-sightedness, unable to see distant objects clearly and able to see distinctly nearer objects, corrected by concave lenses.

Parasite – Animal or plant getting substance from another.

Penicillin – A new antibiotic drug obtained from moulds and this drug has revolutionized the whole medical treatment.

Photo-synthesis – The phenomenon by which the plants assimilate their food from the atmosphere in the presence of sunlight.

Plastic Surgery – The science of restoring or altering human tissues by grafting.

Rickets – A disease due to the deficiency of Vitamin D, common in children. The bones get softened, bent and deformed.

Scurvy – A bleeding disorder mostly among sailors.

Tetanus – A kind of bacillus found in rich soil or the dung of a horse affecting the nervous system, may prove fatal – Prevented by anti-tetanus injection.

Vitamins – Complex organic compounds present in food and essential for the maintenance of health. The five principal vitamins are A, B, C, D and E, besides several others.

Absolute Zero – The lowest theoretical temperature which is equal to 2-3oC.

Alchemy – It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the transmutation of the baser metals into gold.

Allotropy – The phenomenon of the existence of the elements in two or more forms differing in physical property but having the same chemical properties.

Alloy – A homogeneous mixture of a metal with another metal or a non-metal.

Ampere – Unit of electric current. It is approximately equal to the flow of 6 x 1018 electrons per second.

Amalgam – The compound of two or more elements, one of which is mercury.

Atomic Weight – The weight of an atom of an element, composed of weight of hydrogen which is taken as standard.

Atomic Number – The presence of the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus.

Atomic Energy – It is the energy produced by the disintegration of the atoms of certain elements that can be used for useful purposes and not for destructive purposes.

Atomic Pile – It is the original name of a nuclear reactor.

Angstrom – The unit of measurement of wavelength of light. One Angstrom = 10-8 cm.

Bar – It is the unit of atmospheric pressure: one bar is equal to a pressure of 106 dynes per sq. cm.

Beta (b) particle – The negatively charged particles moving with a velocity of 6 x 104 to 16 x 104 miles per second. They have greater power of penetration than Alpha (a) particles and also than gamma (g) particles.

Burette – It is a graduated glass tube used for the measurement of volume of a liquid in volumetric analysis.

Calorie – is the unit of heat. It is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water to one degree Centigrade (1oC).

Catalyst – A substance accelerating the rate of chemical reaction without its own participation.

Coagulation – The phenomenon of precipitating colloidal particles either by warming or by the addition of an electrolyte.

Conduction – It is a process in which the energy of heat is transmitted from one particle to another.

Convection – It is a process in which energy of heat is communicated by actual motion of particles themselves.

Coulomb – Practical unit of the quantity of electricity which is equal to 3 x 109 e.s.u. of electricity. One e.s.u. quantity is that which when placed in air at a distance of 1 cm. from an equal and similar quantity repels it with a force of one dyne.

Dehydrating Agent – A substance that removes water from the substances.

Deuterium – It is also called heavy hydrogen. It is also an isotope of hydrogen having twice the mass of heavy hydrogen.

Dyne – It is a force acting on a mass of one gm. causing an acceleration of one cm. per second.

Electron – are negatively charged particles revolving in certain orbits of an atom?

Electrolysis – The process of decomposition of liquid compounds in acid medium under the action of electric current.

Energy – The capacity to do work is called energy. Its unit in the C.G.S. system is called Erg – The work done by a force of one dyne acting through a distance of one cm.

Electroplating – The process of deposition of one metal upon another metal.

Fermentation – The decomposition of organic compounds by enzymes – living te absence of oxygen,

Fission – The disintegration of atomic nuclei into simpler ones.

Force – It may be defined as the push or pull that tends to produce a change in the state of rest or uniform motion of a body. It is measured in dynes or poundals.

Foot Candle – The unit of the brightness of light is called a foot candle. It is the illumination of a surface placed at a distance of one foot perpendicular to the rays coming from a source of one candle power.

Gamma Rays – Electromagnetic radiation emitted from radioactive material. They are similar in properties to X-rays (Collins: Encyclopedia).

Hard Water – Hard water does not produce lather with soap easily. It is due to the presence of the sulphates of calcium and magnesium and soluble bicarbonates.

Heavy Water – It is a compound of heavy hydrogen and oxygen. Heavy water is used in nuclear research.

Horse Power – It is a practical unit of power – the power of an agent which can work at the rate of 550 ft. pounds per second or 3300 foot pounds per minute.

One H.P. = 746 watts

Hydrolysis – The process of addition of water molecules to a chemical compound during the course of reaction is termed as hydrolysis.

Hydro-Electric Power – It is electrical energy obtained from water power that can be used to move a dynamo.

Isobars – Atoms of different elements possessing the same atomic weight but different atomic numbers.

Isotopes – Atoms of different elements possessing the same atomic weights.

Kilowatt Hour – A unit of electricity. It is equal to work done or energy consumed in one hour when power is one kilowatt.

Kinetic Energy – The energy possessed by a body due to its motion.

Neutron – It is a nuclear particle with no electric charge but having mass equal to that of hydrogen.

Nuclear Energy – It is released during a nuclear reaction due to conversion of mass into energy.

Nuclear Fission – A nuclear reaction between atomic nuclei as a result of which a heavier nucleus is formed and a large amount of energy is released.

Nuclear Reactor – It is an atomic pile in which a nuclear fission chain reaction is maintained and controlled for the production of nuclear energy.

Oxidation – It is a process involving either addition of oxygen or any other electro-negative radical or removal of hydrogen or any other electro-positive radical.

Ohm – It is the unit of electrical resistance of a conductor.

Pipette – It is a glass tube with the help of which a definite volume of liquid may be transferred.

Photon – It is a quantum of light. When a particle possessing an electrical charge changes its momentum photons are generated.

Producer’s Gas – It is a mixture of carbon mono-oxide and nitrogen made by passing air over red hot coke.

Positron – It is a positive electron. It is an elementary particle with some mass as the electron having an electric charge of equal magnitude but opposite sign.

Radiation – It is the transmission of heat in a straight line without heating the intervening medium.

Radioactivity – A number of heavy elements occupying position from 82 and upwards in the periodic table having the quality of breaking up the nucleus spontaneously. The breaking up is followed by the emanation of 3 kinds (i) alpha rays – stream of alpha particles (helium nuclei), (ii) Beta rays – Stream of electrons, (iii) Gamma rays – electro-magnetic radiations of very short wavelength.

Reduction – It is the process involving either addition of hydrogen or any other electro-positive radical or removal of oxygen or any other electro-negative radical.

Spectrum – The splitting of light into several colours after passing through certain medium.

Sublimation – It is the process of direct conversion of solid into vaporous state.

T.N.T. – Tri-nitro-toluene is manufactured by the action of concentrated acid on toluene.

Thermal Capacity – It is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a body by 1oC.

Volt – Practical unit of measuring potential difference.

Watt – Practical unit of power.

1 H.P. = 764 watts.


  1. Astronomical Terms

Asteroids or planetoids – Small planets revolving round the sun between Mars and Jupiter.

Aurora Borealis – Bright shining phenomenon in the Northern Hemisphere emitting coloured light towards the sky. Similar phenomenon seen in the Southern Hemisphere is known as Aurora Austrocles.

Binary star – Two stars; one cannot be distinguished from the other; these are in the same straight line and revolve round their common centre of gravity.

Constellation – The Great Bear, the Scorpion, Orion and Ursa Major which form a group of fixed stars in heavens are known as constellations.

Comet – Heavenly body with a nucleus and luminous tail which can be seen with the naked eye, occasionally; one such was discovered by the Japanese scientists in 1965 and called it Ikey Saki.

Early Bird – Launched by the U.S.A. on 7th April, 1965, it is the world’s first commercial communication satellite which receives, amplifies and transmits back radio and television broadcasts to the earth.

Ecliptic – Imaginary orbit of the sun.

Galaxy – Luminous band of stars consisting of 30,000 million stars; form the Milky Way.

Light Year – A measure of astronomical distance, equal to the distance light travels in the course of a year. Light travels 186,000 miles a second.

Mercury – One of the smaller planets nearest to the sun, 36 million miles away from it and having no satellites.

Meteorite – Solid pieces of matter (cosmic dust) as chief plunge into earth’s atmosphere appearing as shooting stars (meteors). Their composition is similar to that of bits of planet. According to H.G. Urey meteors come from the moon.

Milky Way—Hazy irregular band of stardust completely encircling the heavens.

Moon – The satellite which revolves around the earth and takes about 29 days and 12 hrs to do so. Its distance from the earth is 235,857 miles.

Nebulae – A group of stars far away to be seen singly producing a faint misty path of light in the sky.

Orbiter – The U.S. Lunar spacecraft launched on 11th August, 1966, which transmitted pictures of the surface of the moon.

Planets – Heavenly bodies which revolve round the sun. They are – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto, Planets are global discs. Stars are twinkling points of light.

Pole Star – The North Pole of the earth points towards it. It is a fixed star.

Photosphere – The intensely bright sphere of white light, visible part of the sun.

Quasars – The most distant heavenly bodies, neither stars nor galaxies, moving away at great speed.

Relay – U.S. launched satellite with four times the transmitting power than Telstar for clearer television broadcast.

Satellites – The secondary bodies which revolve around the planet, with no light of their own; they receive light from the sun. Each planet has one or more satellites as the earth has the Moon, Mars has two, Jupiter twelve, Uranus five.

Solar cells – Razer-thin stripes of silicon converting sun’s rays into electric energy.

Sun—A round body of fiery gaseous matter, made of hydrogen gas and helium; temperature at the centre 20 million degrees Centigrade and at the outer surface the temperature is 6000oC; distance from the earth – 92 million miles and 30,000 times heavier than the earth and million times longer.

Sun spots – Dark patches on the surface of the sun; work as safety valves, through which compressed and heated gases escape from the sun’s interior.

Twilight – It is the period between sun-set and the sun 18o below the horizon and the reflection and scattering of sunlight during the period.

Venus – With the orbit between Mercury and the earth it is the brightest of all planets, taking 225 days to go round the sun. From Russia’s Venus IV research spacecraft softlanded an instrument Canister on Venus and recorded a very hostile environment with high surface temperature, a very high atmospheric pressure and full of carbon dioxide there.

Zodiac – A belt of 12 constellations – Aris, Tawens, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, etc., star groups circling the sky making the planets, the sun and the moon look like moving against the background of these constellations. Zodiac is often linked with astrology.


  1. Miscellaneous Terms

Beatles-A group of pop singers from Britain who have won fame all over the world for their musical concerts from among whom George Harrison became a disciple of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi after his visit to India (1968).

Carathon-International motor car race from London to Sydney.

E.E.G. -Electro encephalo gram (Electric writings of the brain), helps diagnose tumours of the brain.

Hijacking-Forcing an aeroplane to change its route for an unscheduled destination at gunpoint.

L.S.D. -Lysergic acid diethylamide, a drug causing strange sensations, first discovered by a Swiss chemist, Albert Hoffmat.

Fathom-6 feet; used for measuring cables and depths of water.

Hand-4 inches; used for measuring the height of a horse.

Hogshead-2 liquid barrels or 14,653 Cubic inches: for measuring liquid, usually wine.

Knot-Speed of 1 nautical mile per hour used for measuring speed of ships.

Aeronautical-Science of aerial navigation.

Camouflage-A kind of covering to hoodwink the enemy to conceal troop position by the use of smokescreens, colours, tree, branches etc.

Generalissimo-Commander of combined military and naval forces.


(A)       Unipolar in the post-Cold War era, the world is considered unipolar as the United States and its capitalist ideology emerged as the clear victor and the sole superpower of the world.

(B)       Bipolar before the Cold-War, the USSR and the USA were considered as the two superpowers of the world, symbolizing a bipolar world order.

(C)        Multipolar More than two countries have dominance in the cultural, economic and military affairs of the world.

(D)       Non-polar Power or dominance is not concentrated in a single, two or multiple nations but is distributed equally among all nations.


Task Force 373

It is tasked with capturing or killing terrorists in areas of Kabul, Kandahar and Khost. It’s a joint military commando force mandated by the United States to fight terrorism in Afghanistan.


  1. Terms Associated With Games

Badminton Serving crease, clash, double touch, smash, drop, deuce.

Baseball Strike, Put Out, Pitcher, Home, Punting.

Basketball Dribble, Shifting, Carrying.

Billiards cannon, jigger, por break, carom, cue.

Boating cox.

Boxing hook, job, punch, knock down, rabbit punch.

Bridge (card game) dummy, trump, revoke, tricks, grand slam, little slam, and chicane.

Chess bishop, gambit, stalemate, checkmate.

Cricket crease, straight drive, LBW, maiden over, stumps, run out, leg bye, bumper, googly, rubber, the ashes, duck, follow on, leg spinner, off spinner, silly point, inswinger, outswinger.

Croquet mallets, hoops.

Football scoop, penalty corner, dribble, handball, throw on.

Golf Bogy, tee, stymie, caddie, hole, links, put.

Horse Races jockey, punter.

Polo mallet, bunker, chukker.

Shooting a bull’s eye.

Rugby Football scrum, drop.

Tennis Volley, smash, half volley, hand deuce, let, foot fault.

Volleyball booster, skipper, deuce, Jove, smasher.

Wrestling heave.


Meanings of Sports Terms

Back Hand (tennis) Swinging away the racket from the back side of the body.

Body line bowling (cricket) A sort of a bumper when the ball bounces to touch the body of the batsman.

Break (cricket) A ball that takes a swing in another direction after touching the ground.

Bully (hockey) One player of either side stands facing the line with the respective goal lines to their right. They touch their side of the ground three times then alternately the opponents’ stick. Then the ball is passed to the rest of the players.

Bye (cricket) Applied to runs, made when the ball has neither touched the bat nor the body of the batsman. (If the ball touches any other part of the body except the hands, it is a leg bye).

Caddie (golf) The person who carries the clubs and attends to the golfer.

Cannon (billiard) Refers to a strike in which the player strikes the red ball as well as his opponent’s.

Check mate (chess) Refers to a move which will ensure the killing of the king on the next move.

Corner hit (hockey) When the defending player plays foil to foil the attack, the attackers are given a corner hit.

Crease (cricket) Lines that define the position of the batsman and the bowler.

Cue (billiards) Sticks for striking balls.

Decathlon (athletics) A type of competition in which one competitor competes for ten events.

Derby (horse race) Refers to the horse race held annually in England.

Deuce (badminton, volleyball, table tennis) Refers to that stage when both sides make equal points at game point.

Dribble (hockey, football) Refers to pushing the ball forward slowly.

Drive Straight (cricket) refers to a stroke of the batsman when the ball is pushed straight with great force.

Duck (cricket) When the batsman is out without scoring a single run,

Follow on (cricket) If one team is leading by 200 runs even when the other team has finished its first innings, it may ask the other team to bat for the second innings also. This is called follow on.

Foot fault (tennis, athletics) When an athlete puts his foot on the marked line, where he is prohibited to put it he is considered to be guilty of foot fault.

Fosbury Flop (athletics) Fosbury, the American athlete and Olympic gold medallist in high jump, adopted this style of jumping. It means taking off on one foot and going over the bar head first.

Googly (cricket) A type of ball which seems to be a leg break but becomes an off break.

Grand Slam (bridge) If a player wins all the tricks it’s Grand Slam.

Half Volley lawn tennis, cricket, table tennis) When the ball is taken on the bounce by the stroke player.

Hat trick (cricket) When a bowler takes three wickets with three successive balls in one over.

Jockey (horse race) Name given to the rider.

LBW (cricket) When the ball hits the leg of the batsman in such a manner as to prevent the ball from hitting the stumps he is declared out, i.e. leg before wicket.

Net (badminton) When at service the shuttle touches the net.

Maiden Over (cricket) When the bowler does not allow the batsman to score  even a single run during one over.

Marathon race (athletics) Refers to a race over a distance of 27′ miles 385 yards (distance between Marathon and Athens in Greece).

Mallet (pole) Hammer with which ball is struck.

No ball (cricket) When the feet of the bowler cross the bowling crease the ball is declared no ball. The batsman will not be out even the ball uproots the stumps.

Over (cricket) A spell of six balls in succession by one bowler.

Rabbit punch (boxing) A blow that falls on the back of the neck.

Rubber (cricket) when a team wins two out of three or three out of five test matches it is said to have won the rubber.

Sticks (hockey) when the ball is flung far with the scoop of the hockey stick.

Scoop (hockey) when a player raises his stick above his shoulder while hitting the ball.

Stumped (cricket) if the wicket-keeper uproots the stumps with the ball or hand when the batsman is out of the crease, the batsman is stumped and is out.

Tee (golf) Small conical support on which ball is kept before striking.

Volley (volleyball) when the ball is struck hard to send it sharply downwards.


  1. Other Useful Scientific Terms

Acid: In chemistry; a substance that may have a sour taste, makes blue litmus paper turn red, and can react with a base to make salt.

Agronomy: The science of growing crops and plants for purposes of human food needs and also making fuel. The technology used in the agricultural sector is also part of agronomy. This science involves irrigation of lands, rotation of crops, land drainage, classifying soil to find the best suited ones for crops, breeding of plants, finding out fertility of soil, figuring out which weeds and pests are damaging to the crops, etc.

Ammeter: A device used to measure electrical current, which is measured in amperes (A, or amps).

Anorthosite: The predominant rock of the lunar highlands.

Apogee: A point in a satellite’s orbit where it is furthest from the Earth.

Arc: A lie in the sky from horizon to horizon which extends 180 degrees.

Astronomy: The scientific study of the universe, including the solar system, stars and galaxies.

Atmosphere: An envelope of mixed gases that surround a celestial body such as a planet, moon, or star. An atmosphere is held to the hody by the body’s gravity.

Atmospheric Pressure: A force over a given area that is caused by the weight of an atmosphere. .

Axis: An imaginary line through the centre of a planet or satellite around which it rotates.

Base: A substance that may have a bitter taste, feels soapy and neutralizes acids.

Blood pressure: The pressure of blood on the walls of blood vessels.

Breccias: A rock made from mineral fragments cemented together by the heat of meteoroid impact.

Chromatography: A method of separating a mixture of compounds by the use of a porous material.

Composition: The chemical makeup of an object.

Compound: A substance made by combining two or more parts or elements; water is a chemical compound made from hydrogen and oxygen.

Coordinate System: A system used to identify locations on a graph or grid. Latitude and longitude are an example of a coordinate system.

Core: The central region of a planet or moon frequently made of different material than the surrounding regions (mantle and crust). Earth and the Moon are thought to have cores of iron and nickel.

Condensation: A change of state from gas to liquid.

Crater:  A base resulting from the collision of an object with a planetary surface.

Dehydrated: The state a substance is in when moisture has been removed from it, too much heat can dehydrate the body.

Density: The mass of a substance for a given volume.

Diameter: The distance across a circle through its centre. Alsa, the distance through a sphere, measured through the centre of the sphere.

Diastolic: A measurement of the amount of pressure, on the walls of blood vessels when the heart is at rest.

Diffraction: The bending of light as it passes through a small slit or opening. When we study the diffraction of sunlight, we see a rainbow of colours.

Ellipse: A conic section; the curve of intersection of a circular cone and a plane cutting completely through the cone.

Equatorial orbit: An orbit around the plane of the equator.

Evaporation. A change of state from liquid to gas.

Fog: A cloud at ground level.

Force:   That which can change the momentum of a body. Numerically, the rate at which the body’s momentum changes.

Geosynchronous orbit: An equatorial, circular orbit approximately, 36,000 km above the centre of the Earth in the plane of the equator.

Gravity: The natural force of attraction that exists between all bodies in the universe.

Horticulture: Horticulture is the art and science of growing flowers, fruits, crops, and vegetables for purposes of consumption, medicinal use, and decorative/ornamental purposes. They are also marketed as high-end, luxury plants which are grown and curated with the purpose of meeting specific demands of people. The word Horticulture has its roots in Latin; hortus means garden and cultura means cultivation. The fathers of this science are Liberty Hyde Bailey along with Thomas Andrew Knight and John Lindley.

Latitude: The angular distance north or south from the Earth’s equator measured in degrees and the meridian of a point: equator being 0 degrees and the poles 90 degrees north and 90 degrees south.

Lava: Molten rock that erupts to Earth’s surface through a volcano or a fissure.

Longitude: The angular distance east or west, between the meridian of a particular place on Earth and that of the Prime Meridian (located in Greenwich, England) expressed in degrees or time.

Lunar:   Relating to the Moon.

Maria:   Low areas on the Moon that appear dark and smooth. Maria are formed by ancient lava flows.

Mass: The amount of material present in an object. In an Earth environment this quantity is often directly compared to weight. Mass is an intrinsic property of the object.

Meteorite: A solid fragment of some planetary body that has passed through the Earth’s atmosphere and landed intact on its surface.

Meteoroid: A small, solid body moving through space in orbit around the Sun.

Motion: Movement of an object in relation to its surroundings.

NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a United States federal agency.

Orbit: The path of an object around another object, e.g., planets movmg around the Sun.

Parallel: Two lines running side by side at an equal distance apart. Railroad tracks run parallel to each other.

Particulates: Solid particles suspended in a gas or liquid.

Payload: The cargo (scientific instruments, satellites, spacecraft, etc.) carried by a rocket.

Perigee: The place in the orbit of an earth satellite where it is closest to the center of the Earth.

pH: A scale from 1 – 10 that specifies how acidic or alkaline a substance is.

Pigment: The colouring of a particular object or substance.

Planet:  Any of nine solid, no luminous bodies revolving about the Sun.

Planetary Geology: The study of the processes and history associated with the solid, rocky objects of the solar system.

Polar axis: The axis of rotation of the Earth: also, an axis in the mounting of a telescope that is parallel to the Earth’s axis.

Prism:   A piece of transparent material that separates the colours of sunlight into a rainbow or spectrum.

Probe:   A spacecraft, with no humans aboard, designed to study conditions on or near a planet.

Propulsion: The act of moving an object and maintaining its motion.

Pulse Rate: The number of times a heart beats per minute in a person’s body.

Radiation: A mode of energy transport whereby energy is transmitted through a vacuum; also, the transmitted energy itself, either electromagnetic or corpuscular.

Reaction: A movement in the opposite direction from the imposition of an action.

Regolith: A powdery soil layer on the Moon’s surface caused by bombardment by meteoroids.

Respiration rate: The number of breaths a person makes per minute.

Revolution: The motion of one body around another.

Rocket: A device propelled by ejection of matter, especially by the high velocity ejection of the gaseous combustion products produced by internal ignition of solid or liquid fuels.

Satellite revolution: The time from one perigee (the point of an elliptical orbit path where a satellite is closest to the Earth) to the next.

Satellite: A body that revolves about a larger one; for example, a moon of a planet.

Solar Activity: Phenomena of the solar atmosphere associated with sunspots, plagues, and related phenomena.,

Solar system: The system of the Sun and the planets. Their satellites the minor planets, comets, meteoroids, and other objects revolving around the Sun.

Space debris: Debris from satellites and space vehicles, as well as natural objects like meteorites and planetary particles that travel through the Solar System.

Space shuttle: A partially reusable space transportation system that can carry people and cargo; built to replace launch vehicles that could only be used once.

Space station: An orbiting space laboratory on which people could live and work for several years or more.

Spacecraft: Vehicle capable of travelling in outer space and in earth orbit.

Spectroscope: A device used for separating light into component colours for analysis.

Sphygmomanometer: A device used in conjunction with a stethoscope to measure a person’s blood pressure.

Star: A self-luminous sphere of gas.

Sun: The star about which the Earth and other planets revolve.

Sunspot: A temporary cool region in the solar photosphere that appears dark by contrast against the surrounding hotter photosphere.

Tectonics: The process that forms planetary features such as continents, mountains, and faults.

Thermometer: Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit – he invented it in 1709. It was a glass tube with a measuring scale and with alcohol inside it to measure the temperature. Later on, in 1714, he started using mercury instead of alcohol.

Trajectory: The path of a projectile or other moving body through space.

Transceiver: A radio that uses many of the same components for transmitting and receiving signals.

Universe: The totality of all matter and radiation and the space occupied by the same.

Velocity: A vector that denotes both the speed and direction a body is moving.

Viscosity: Having a relatively high resistance to flow.

Volcano: An opening in the Earth’s crust where molten lava, gases and ash are ejected.

Weight: The force with which the Earth’s (or any celestial body’s) gravity pulls down on something.


Common Legal Terms


AKA: “Also known as”. Used to list aliases or another name, or another spelling of a name used by a person.

Accelerated Rehabilitation: Also called AR. A program that gives persons charged with a crime or motor vehicle violation for the first time a second chance. The person is placed on probation for up to two years. If probation is completed satisfactorily, the charges are dismissed.

Acknowledgment: The signature of a clerk or attorney certifying that the person signing the document has signed by his or her free act and for the purposes set forth therein.

Action: Also called a case or lawsuit. A civil judicial proceeding where one party sues another for a wrong done, or to protect a right or to prevent a wrong.

Adjournment: Postponement of a court session until another time or place.

Adjudication: A decision or sentence imposed by a judge.

Adjudicatory Hearing: Juvenile court proceeding to determine whether the allegations made in a petition are true and whether the child/youth should be subject to orders of the court.

Adult Court Transfer: The transfer of juveniles who are at least fourteen years old to regular criminal dockets in Geographical Area or Judicial District courts. Also involves the transfer from a Juvenile Detention Center to the State Department of Correction.

Adult Probation: A legal status, applied to people 16 years of age and older, who have been convicted of a crime and placed under the supervision of a probation officer for a period of time set by the court.

Affirmation: Declaring something to be true under the penalty of perjury by a person who will not take an oath for religious or other reasons.

Affidavit: A written statement made under oath, swearing to the truth of the contests of a document.

Alcohol Education Program: A pre-trial program for first time offenders charged with driving a motor vehicle under the influence of alcohol.

Alford Doctrine: A plea in a criminal case in which the defendant does not admit guilt, but agrees that the state has enough evidence against him or her to get a conviction. Allows the defendant to enter into a plea bargain with the state. If the judge accepts the Alford Plea, a guilty finding is made on the record.

Alimony: Money a court requires one spouse to pay the other spouse for support before and/or after the divorce is granted. If you do not ask for alimony at the final hearing, you can never get it in the future.

Allegation: Saying that something is true. The assertion, declaration or statement of a party in a case, made in a pleading.

Alternate Juror: A juror selected as a substitute in case another juror must leave the jury panel.

Alternative Detention Program: Programs operated by service providers under the Office of Alternative Sanctions used to detain juveniles instead of in a Juvenile Detention Center.

Alternative Dispute Resolution: Also called ADR. Any method used to resolve disputes other than traditional trial proceedings. For example, mediation. ADR programs speed up the disposition of civil cases.

Alternative Incarceration Center: Also called AIC. A community based program that provides monitoring, supervision and services to people who would otherwise be incarcerated.

Alternative Sanctions: Criminal punishment that is less restrictive than incarceration.

Amicus Curiae brief: A Latin term meaning “friend of the court.” An Amicus Curiae brief is filed by someone who is not a party to a case but has an interest in its outcome. A person who wants to file an amicus curiae brief usually has to get the court’s permission to do so.

Annulment: A court order declaring that a marriage is invalid.

Answer: A court document, or pleading, in a civil case, by which the defendant responds to the plaintiff’s complaint.

Appeal: Asking a higher court to review the decision or sentence of a trial court because the lower court made an error.

Appeal Bond: Money paid to the court while taking an appeal to cover costs and damages to the other party, if the appeal is not successful.

Appearance: The official court form filed with the court clerk which tells the court that you are representing yourself in a lawsuit or criminal case or that an attorney is representing you. All court notices and calendars will be mailed to the address listed on the form. When a defendant in a civil case files an appearance, the person is submitting to the court’s jurisdiction.

Appellant: The party appealing a decision or judgment to a higher court.

Appellee: The party against whom an appeal is taken.

Arbitration: Submitting a case of dispute to designated parties for a decision, instead of using a judge.

Arraignment: The first court appearance of a person accused of a crime. The person is advised of his or her rights by a judge and may respond to the criminal charges by entering a plea. Usually happens the morning after a person is arrested.

Arrest: When a person is taken into custody by a police officer and charged with a crime.

Arrearages: Money for alimony and/or child support, which is overdue and unpaid.

Assignment List: A printed list of cases to be presented to the court for hearing.

Assistant Attorney General: An attorney who represents a state agency in civil cases.

Attachment: A lien on property or assets to hold it to pay or satisfy any final judgment.

Attorney of Record: Attorney whose name appears in the permanent records or files of a case.

Automatic Orders: Court orders that take effect when a divorce or custody case is started.


Bail: Also called Bond. Money or property given to the court for the temporary release of a defendant, to ensure that the defendant will return to court.

Bail Bondsperson: A person who lends money to a defendant to pay for bail.

Bail Commissioner: A state-appointed person who may set the amount of bond for persons detained at a police station prior to arraignment in court, and who recommends to the court the amount of bond that should be set for the defendant on each criminal case.

Bar: Refers to attorneys as a group.

Best Interest of the Child: The standard a judge uses to decide custody and visitation issues.

Bench Warrant: Court papers issued by the judge, “from the bench,” for the arrest of a person.

Bond: Also called bail. Money or property given to the court for the temporary release of a defendant, to ensure that the defendant will return to court. There are two kinds of bonds:

Non-financial bonds:

  1. a) Non-surety bond where the defendant’s signature alone guarantees the amount of bond and the defendant is not required to post any property or retain the services of a professional bail bondsperson as collateral.
  2. b) Promise to appear.

Surety bond: The court requires cash, real estate or a professional bail bond persons signature as collateral before releasing the defendant back into the community. (The court may allow the defendant to post ten percent of the bond in cash to secure his or her release.)

Bond Forfeiture (calling the Bond): If the defendant fails to appear in court as scheduled, the judge may order the bond forfeited (paid to the state) and the defendant rearrested.

Bond Review: A hearing for a judge to decide if the defendant’s bond amount needs to be changed.

Bondsman: A surety; one who has put up cash or property as collateral before a defendant may be released.

Brief: A written document prepared by a lawyer or party on each side of a dispute and filed with the court in support of their arguments.

Broken Down Irretrievably: The most common reason for granting a divorce. It means there is no hope of the husband and wife getting back together again. Also known as “no-fault” divorce.


Calendar: A list of court cases scheduled for a specific date and time; the civil and family court docket.

Calendar Call: The calling of cases scheduled for the day, usually done at the beginning of each court day.

Capias Mittimus: A civil arrest warrant used to get a person physically into court to respond to a specific case or claim.

Capital Felony: A criminal offense in which the death penalty may be imposed (C.G.S. ’53a-54b).

Case: A lawsuit or action in a court.

Case Conference: A meeting scheduled by the court to review the case.

Case File: The court file containing papers submitted in a case.

Case Flow Coordinator: A person who keeps track of your case and supervises the scheduling of hearings and trials.

Central Transportation Unit: Persons in the Division of Juvenile Detention Services who provide safe and secure transportation services for juveniles detained at Juvenile Detention Centers, Alternative Detention Program and Girls’ Detention Program.

Certify: To testify in writing; to make known or establish as a fact.

CGS: Abbreviation for Connecticut General Statutes External Link – You are leaving the CT Judicial Branch website

Challenge: Rejecting a potential juror.

Charge: Formal accusation of a crime.

Charge to Jury: In trial practice, an address delivered by the court to the jury at the close of the case instructing the jury as to what principles of law they are to apply in reaching a decision. Civil | Criminal

Chattels: All property except real property; personal property. For example: jewelry, clothing, furniture, and appliances.

Child: Any person under the age of sixteen (16) years of age.

Child Support: Money paid by a parent to help meet the financial needs of a child.

The “Chip Smith Charge” is an instruction to deadlocked jurors in civil and criminal cases, urging those jurors who disagree with the majority vote to reexamine the majority views in an effort to reach a unanimous verdict.

CIP: Children in Placement- a voluntary program in Juvenile Court, which monitors neglect cases.

Civil Action: A lawsuit other than a criminal case usually filed in a Judicial District courthouse. Includes family actions (divorces, child support, etc) and small claims cases, although these are both separately designated.

Claim: In civil cases, the statement of relief desired.

Classification and Program Officer: Also called CPO. A person who provides classification, program, counseling and recreational services to detained juveniles. May attend certain court hearings in Juvenile Matters and provide reports.

Common Law: Laws that develop through case decisions by judges. Not enacted by legislative bodies.

Community Service: Work that convicted defendants are required to perform in order to repay the community for the harm caused to the community by the crime.

Community Services Coordinator: The person who refers a defendant to community service work and supervises the defendant’s completion of that work.

Community Service Labor Program: Also called CSLP. A community service program for persons charged with drug offenses. Upon successful completion of the community service sentence, the criminal case is dismissed.

Complaint: A legal document that tells the court what you want, and is served with a summons on the defendant to begin the case.

Complex Litigation: A specialized docket designed for complex civil cases, where one judge hears the case from beginning to end. Criteria includes: multiple parties, large amounts of money, lengthy trial or complex legal issues.

Conditional Discharge: A disposition, in criminal cases, where the defendant must satisfy certain court-ordered conditions instead of a prison term.

Contempt of Court: A finding that someone disobeyed a court order. Can also  mean disrupting court, for example, by being loud or disrespectful in court.

Continuance: The adjournment or postponement of a court case to another day.

Continuance Date: Date on which the case will next be heard in court.

Contract: A legally enforceable agreement between two or more persons or parties.

Conviction: To be found guilty of committing a crime.

Costs: Expenses in prosecuting or defending a case in court. Usually does not include attorney’s fees.

Count: The different parts of a complaint, which could each be a basis or grounds for the lawsuit.

Counterclaim: A claim by the defendant in a civil action that the defendant is entitled to damages or other relief from the plaintiff.

Court-Appointed Attorney: An attorney who is asked by the court (judge) to either represent a party to the case, or to serve in some other capacity that the case requires.

Court Clerk: The person who maintains the official court record of your case. The court clerks’ office receives all court papers and assigns hearing dates.

Court Interpreter: The person who translates court hearings from English to another language. Provided at state expense in all criminal cases and in cases enforcing child support orders, if requested. No interpreter is available for divorce or any other civil case.

Court Monitor: The person who prepares a written record of the court hearing for a fee, if requested, from audiotapes made during the hearing.

Court Reporter: The person who records everything said during the court hearing on a stenograph machine and prepares a written record for a fee, if requested.

Court Services Officer: A person who assists the judge and oversees cases as they go through the court.

Court Trial: Trial by a judge, rather than by a jury.

Crime Victim Compensation Program: Awards money to crime victims and their families for medical, mental health, dental, funeral expenses, lost wages and loss of support.

Cross-Examination: Questioning by a party or the attorney of an adverse party or a witness.

Custody: A court order deciding where a child will live and how decisions about the child will be made. Parents may ask for any custody arrangement that they believe is in the best interest of their child.

Custody Affidavit: A sworn statement containing facts about a child involved in a case, including full name of the child, date of birth, current and past residences and other information as may be required by law.


Damages: Money a party receives as compensation for a legal wrong.

Day Incarceration Center: Also called DIC. A community based program that provides monitoring, supervision and services to people who would otherwise be incarcerated. Day Incarceration Center clients are supervised during the daytime hours, seven days per week.

Declaration: An unsworn statement of facts made by a party to the transaction, or by one who has an interest in the facts recounted.

Default: To fail to respond or answer to the plaintiff’s claims by filing the required court document; usually an Appearance or an Answer.

Defendant: In civil cases, the person who is given court papers, also called a respondent. In criminal cases, the person who is arrested and charged with a crime.

Delinquent: In civil or family cases, failing to pay an amount of money when due: In juvenile cases, a child who violated a law, local ordinance, or an order of the Superior Court.

Deposition: Testimony of a witness taken, under oath, in response to another party’s questions. Testimony given outside the courtroom, usually in a lawyer’s office. A word for word account (transcript) is made of the testimony.

Detention Hearing or Detention Release Hearing: A hearing on the first business day after a juvenile is admitted to juvenile detention concerning the legality and appropriateness of continued detention of the juvenile. The detention decision must be reviewed at least every fifteen days.

Discovery: A formal request by one party in a lawsuit to disclose information or facts known by other parties or witnesses.

Dismissal: A judge’s decision to end the case.

Dismissal Without Prejudice: A judge’s decision to end the case which permits the complainant or prosecutor to renew the case later. In contrast, dismissal “with prejudice” prevents the complainant or prosecutor from bringing or maintaining the same claim or action again.

Dispose: Ending a legal case or a judicial proceeding.

Disposition: The manner in which a case is settled or resolved.

Dissolution: The legal end of a marriage, also called a divorce.

Diversionary Programs: Community based programs that are used to keep eligible, convicted criminal offenders out of prison.

Docket: A list of cases scheduled to be heard in court on a specific day or week.

Docket Number: A unique number the court clerk assigns to a case. It must be used on all future papers filed in the court case. Each docket number starts with two letters that tell the type of case. CI = criminal infraction; CR = criminal case; CV = civil case; FA = family case; MI = motor vehicle infraction; MV= motor vehicle case; SC = small claims.

Domicile: The permanent home of a person. A person may have several residences, but only one domicile.

Drug Court: A Special Session of the Superior Court that is responsible for hearing cases involving charges of drug offenses.


Education Program: A program for family violence offenders that, if granted and successfully completed, results in dismissal of criminal charges (C.G.S. §46b-38c).

Ejectment: A legal case filed against someone who is a holdover tenant (someone who remains after the expiration of a lease).

Electronic Monitoring: An electronic system that provides the Probation Officer or Bail Commissioner a report about whether the offender has left home during the time when the offender was required to remain at his or her home.

Emancipated Minor: A person under the legal majority age of 18 who is granted most rights and legal privileges of an adult (C.G.S.§46b-150, et seq.).

Emancipation: The release of a youth from the legal authority and control of the youth’s parents and the corresponding release of the youth’s parents from their obligations to the youth.

Eminent Domain: The legal process by which private property is taken for public use without the consent of the owner.

Eviction: Legally forcing a tenant out of rented property. (Housing Publications)

Evidence: Testimony, documents or objects presented at a trial to prove a fact.

Ex Parte: Done for, or at the request of, one side in a case only, without prior notice to the other side.

Execution Suspended: A prison sentence that is suspended in whole or in part provided certain conditions of probation or conditional discharge are met by the defendant.


Failure to Appear: In a civil case, failing to file an Appearance form. In a criminal case, failing to come to court for a scheduled hearing.

Family Relations Counselor: A person who mediates disagreements and negotiates agreements in custody, visitation and divorce cases. At the request of the judge, a family relations counselor may evaluate a family situation by interviewing each parent and the children in the family. The family relations counselor then writes a report for the judge, making recommendations about custody and visitation. Works in the Family Services Office.

Family Support Magistrate: A person who decides cases involving child support and paternity. Can also enforce court orders involving paternity, child support and alimony.

Family Violence Education Program: A program for family violence offenders that if successfully completed, results in the dismissal of criminal charges.

Family Violence Victim Advocate: A person who works with domestic violence victims to determine their needs and inform them of their rights and resources available to them.

Family With Service Needs: Also called FWSN. A family that includes a child, who (a) runs away without just cause, (b) is beyond the control of his/her parents/guardian, (c) has engaged in indecent or immoral conduct, and/or (d) is a truant or continuously defiant of school rules and regulations.

Felony: Any criminal offense for which a person may be sentenced to a term of imprisonment of more than one year.

Felony Murder: A murder committed while the person is also committing a felony.

Filing: Giving the court clerk legal papers which become part of the case file.

Financial Affidavit: Short | Long – A sworn statement of income, expenses, property (called assets) and debts (called liabilities).

Finding: The court’s or jury’s decision on issues of fact.

Foreclosure: A court order ending the legal ownership of property.

Foreman: An elected member of a jury who delivers the verdict to the court.


Garnishment: A court order to collect money or property. For example, a garnishment may be issued to an employer to pay part of an employee’s wages to someone else to pay a debt or judgment.

GA – Geographical Area: Geographical Area. The court location where motor vehicles and most criminal cases are heard. There are 22 Geographical Areas in Connecticut.

Grievance: A complaint filed against an attorney or judge, claiming an ethics violation.

Guardian: A person who has the power and duty to take care of another person and/or to manage the property and rights of another person who is considered incapable of taking care of his or her personal affairs.

Guardian Ad Litem: A person, usually a parent, appointed by the court to represent a child or unborn person in a court case. If a family member is not available, a judge may appoint an attorney.


Habeas Corpus: A court order used to bring a person physically before a court in order to test the legality of the person’s detention. Usually, it is directed to the official or person detaining another, commanding him to bring the person to court for the judge to determine if that person has been denied liberty without due process of law.

Hearsay: Testimony given by a witness who tells second or third hand information.

Honor Court: A program of outpatient group therapy for alcohol abusers.

Housing Specialist: A person who provides pretrial mediation of landlord/tenant cases to reach settlement. Also provides information about community resources to litigants.

Hung Jury: A jury whose members cannot reconcile their differences of opinion and thus cannot reach a verdict.


Incarceration: Confinement to a state correctional institute or prison.

Income Withholding Order: A court order to deduct child support or alimony payments from someone’s wages. All child support court orders must include an income withholding order unless both parents ask the judge not to.

Indigent: Someone without enough money to either support himself or herself or his or her family. Someone who cannot afford to pay certain fees required by the court. (Civil, Family, Housing | Juvenile)

Information (the): In a criminal case, the formal court document in the clerk’s file, which contains the charges, dates of offenses, bond status, continuance dates and disposition.

Infraction: A case where the fine may be paid by mail and usually the person does not have to appear or come to court. For example, a speeding ticket. (Infractions Schedule)

Injunction: A court order to stop doing or to start doing a specific act.

Interpreter: The person who correctly translates court hearings from a second language to English.  An interpreter is provided at no cost to the person who needs the interpreter in all cases where the person’s life, freedom, children or housing are at risk of being taken away.  Interpreters are also provided for criminal and child support cases.

Interrogatory: Formal, written questions used to get information from another party in a lawsuit.

Investigatory Grand Jury: A judge, constitutional state referee or any three judges of the Superior Court, appointed by the Chief Court Administrator to conduct an investigation into the commission of a crime or crimes.


Judge: A person who hears and decides cases for the courts. Appointed by the governor for a term of eight years and confirmed by the General Assembly.

Judgment: A court decision. Also called a decree or an order.

Judgment File: A permanent court record of the court’s final disposition of the case.

JD – Judicial District: Connecticut has 13 judicial districts (JD) in which civil, criminal, family and juvenile matters are heard. Civil jury, civil non-jury, administrative appeals and family matters generally are heard in a JD courthouse.

Juris Number: An identification number assigned to each attorney in Connecticut.

Jurisdiction: Power and authority of a court to hear and make a judgment in a case.

Juror: Member of a jury.

Jury Charge: The judge’s formal instructions on the law to the jury before it begins deliberations.

Jury Instructions: Directions given by the judge to the jury concerning the law of the case. (Civil | Criminal)

Juvenile Court: Also called Superior Court for Juvenile Matters. A special division of the Superior Court designated to hear all cases concerning uncared for, dependent children and youth and delinquents. All juvenile court proceedings and case records are confidential and are not public information.

Juvenile Delinquent: A person under the age of 16 who commits a criminal act.

Juvenile Detention: State facility to provide for the temporary care of a child who alleged to be delinquent and who requires a physically restricted, secure environment.

Juvenile Detention Center: A secure facility for juveniles operated by the Division of Juvenile Detention Services of the Connecticut Judicial Branch, open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Juvenile Detention Officer: Also called JDO. A person who works within a Juvenile Detention Center.

Juvenile Matters: All cases concerning uncared for, neglected or dependent children and youth, termination of parental rights of children committed to a state agency, matters concerning families with service needs, contested matters involving termination of parental rights or removal of guardian transferred from the Probate Court and the emancipation of minors. It does not include guardianship or adoption cases, or matters affecting property rights of any child or youth over which the Probate Court has jurisdiction. The Probate Court hears appeals concerning adoption, termination of parental rights and removal of a parent as guardian are included. Juvenile matters in the criminal session include all cases concerning delinquent children in the state.

Juvenile Probation: Placement of an adjudicated delinquent under the supervision of a juvenile probation officer.

Juvenile Transportation Officer: Also called JTO. A person who provides safe transportation services for juveniles in custody.



Law Librarian: Court staff who maintain legal reference and research materials for public use.

Legal Aid or Legal Services: Free legal representatives in civil cases for income eligible persons. Call 1-800-453-3320 to apply.

Legal Custody: Relationship with a child created by court order which gives a person legal responsibility for the physical possession of a minor and the duty to protect, care for and discipline the child.

Legal Separation: A court order describing the conditions under which two married people will live separately.

Lien: A charge, hold, or claim upon property of another as security for a debt.

Lis Pendens: A pending lawsuit. Jurisdiction or control that courts have over property in a case waiting for final disposition. A notice of lis pendens is filed on the land records.

Litigant: A party to a case.

Lockout: Illegally forcing a tenant out of rented property, usually by changing the locks on the doors.


Magistrate: A person who is not a judge but who is authorized to hear and decide certain types of cases. For example, family support magistrates hear cases involving child support.

Mandamus: An order directed to a private corporation, or any of its officers, or to an executive, administrative or judicial officer, or to a lower court, commanding the performance of a particular act.

Marshal: The persons responsible for courthouse security including the metal detectors at the entrance of each courthouse and maintaining order in each courtroom. A marshal can also serve (give copies of) legal papers to the other people named in a lawsuit.

Mediation: A dispute resolution process in which an impartial third party assists the parties to voluntarily reach a mutually acceptable settlement.

Minor: A person under age 18, the age of legal majority.

Misdemeanor: A crime that carries a maximum penalty of one year and/or a $2,000 fine.

Mitigating Circumstances: Circumstances that may be considered to reduce the guilt of a defendant. Usually based on fairness or mercy.

Mittimus Judgment: Also called a Mitt. The formal document prepared by the court clerk to present a convicted defendant in a criminal case to the Department of Correction for incarceration.

Modification: Request to change a prior order. Usually requires showing a change in circumstances since the date of the prior order.

Motion: Usually written request to the court in a case. Filed with the clerk’s office.

Movant: The person who filed the motion, or request, to the court.

Moving Party: The person making the request to the court in a case.


Ne Exeat: A legal paper requesting that a person be required to remain within the jurisdiction of the court (either through incarceration or posting of a bond.)

Neglected Minor: A child or youth who has (a) been abandoned, (b) is being denied proper attention, (c) is being permitted to live under conditions injurious to his/her well being, or (d) has been abused.

No Contact Order: A court order that prohibits contact by a defendant with a victim; can be ordered by a judge, a bail commissioner, a probation officer or a parole officer.

No Fault Divorce: The most common kind of divorce, where no one needs to prove that the husband or the wife is at fault, or caused the marriage to end. Described as “broken down irretrievably”.

Nolle: Short for nolle prosequi, which means “no prosecution”. A disposition of a criminal or motor vehicle case where the prosecutor agrees to drop the case against the defendant but keeps the right to reopen the case and prosecute at any time during the next thirteen months. The nolle is entered on the court record and the defendant is released from custody. If the defendant stays out of trouble during the thirteen months, the case is removed from the official court records.

Nolo Contendere: It means “no contest”. A plea in a criminal case that allows the defendant to be convicted without admitting guilt for the crime charged. Although a finding of guilt is entered on the criminal court record; the defendant can deny the charges in a civil action based on the same acts.

No Contest: A plea in a criminal case that allows the defendant to be convicted without admitting guilt for the crime charged. Also called nolo contendere. Although a finding of guilt is entered on the criminal court record, the defendant can deny the charges in a civil action based on the same acts.

Non-Suit: Vacating a case by the court, usually for failure to prosecute.

Notarize: To formally complete a document by acknowledgement or oath.


Oath: To swear/affirm to the truth of a statement/document.

Office of Adult Probation: A division within the Judicial Branch. The primary responsibilities of the Office of Adult Probation are to supervise persons placed on probation, to conduct investigations for the court to provide background information on convicted offenders and to conduct eligibility investigations for special programs.

Order: A written direction of a court or judge to do or refrain from doing certain acts.

Order to Detain: An order signed by a judge of the Superior Court authorizing admission of a juvenile to a Juvenile Detention Center, pending a hearing on the next business day.

Order of Detention (Detention Order): An order issued by a judge of the Superior Court finding that there is probable cause that a juvenile committed an offense or a violation of a court order and ordering that the juvenile be held in a Juvenile Detention Center or some alternative facility until further order of the court.

Orders of Temporary Custody: Also called an OTC. Court order placing a child or youth in the short-term legal custody of an individual or agency authorized to care for juveniles.


Parcel: A tract or a plot of land.

Parenting Education Program: A mandatory program for persons involved in a divorce with children or a custody or visitation case. Must be attended within 60 days of the return date on the summons.

Parole: Release from incarceration after serving part of a sentence.

Parties: The people or legal entities that are named as plaintiff(s) and defendant(s) on legal papers.

Party: A person or legal entity that is named as a plaintiff or defendant on legal papers.

Paternity: Legal fatherhood.

Pendente lite order: A court order made before final orders are granted.

Peremptory Challenge: The rejection of a prospective juror by the attorneys in a case, without having to give a reason. State law defines the number of peremptory challenges available.

Perjury: Making false statements under oath.

Petition: A formal written request to a court, which starts a special proceeding. In juvenile court, the legal document which specifies the complaint against the juvenile and/or family; it includes the name, age and address of the minor and his/her guardian, as well as the statutory grounds and facts upon which the request for the court intervention is based.

Petitioner: Another word for plaintiff, the person starting the lawsuit.

Plaintiff: The person who sues or starts a civil case, also called the petitioner or the complainant.

Plea: An accused persons answer to a criminal charge. For example: not guilty; guilty; no contest.

Plea Bargain: The agreement a defendant makes with the prosecutor to avoid a trial. Usually involves pleading guilty to lesser charges in exchange for a lighter sentence.

Pleadings: The court documents filed with the court by the parties in a civil or criminal case. For example: motion to dismiss; motion for modification.

Posting Bond: To pay the court ordered bond amount with cash or property.

Post Judgment: Any request to a court or action by a judge after a judgment in a case.

Practice Book: Contains the rules of court and forms which must be followed in all Connecticut court cases. Available in all courthouse law libraries.

Pre-Sentence Investigation: Also called PSI. A background investigation conducted by a probation officer on a person who has been convicted of a criminal offense.

Pretrial: In a civil case, a conference with a judge or trial referee to discuss discovery and settlement. In a criminal case, a conference with the prosecutor, defense attorney and judge to discuss the case status and what will happen next.

Pretrial Hearing: Conference with attorneys to determine scope of possible trial with view toward resolving issues through agreement.

Probable Cause Hearing: A hearing held before a judge in criminal cases to determine if enough evidence exists to prosecute. The probable cause hearing must be conducted within 60 days of the filing of the complaint or information in Superior Court, unless the accused person waives the time or the court grants an extension based on good cause.

Probate/Probate Court: A court with limited authority to hear certain kinds of cases, such as adoption, guardianship, mental health commitments. Not a part of the Superior Court system.

Probation: When a convicted offender receives a suspended term of incarceration and is then supervised by a probation officer for a period of time set by a judge.

Probation Absconder: A person under probation supervision whose location is unknown, in violation of the conditions of their probation.

Promise to Appear: A type of non-financial bond where the defendant agrees to return to court without giving cash or property.

Pro Se: A Latin phrase meaning for “yourself”–representing yourself in any kind of case.

Pro se Divorce: Do it yourself divorce – (en epañol).

Prosecute: To carry on a case or judicial proceeding. To proceed against a person criminally.

Prosecutor: Also called the state’s attorney. Represents the state in a criminal case against a defendant.

Protective Order: A criminal court order issued by a judge to protect a family or household member.

Public Defender: An attorney appointed and paid by the state who defends a person in a criminal case after the court finds that the person is indigent–financially unable to hire a private attorney.


Ready: Means ready to start the trial or begin oral argument. Usually said by an attorney or party in response to a judge calling the list of scheduled cases.

Record: The pleadings, the exhibits and the transcript made by the court reporter of all proceedings in a trial.

Referee: Judges who reach the mandatory retirement age of 70 may be designated as Judge Trial Referees by the Chief Justice and can hear and decide certain types of cases.

Regional Child Protection Docket: A specialized court designed to hear complicated child protection cases. One judge hears the case from start to finish. Located in Middletown.

Regional Family Trial Docket: A specialized court designed to hear complicated family cases. One judge hears the case from start to finish. Located in Middletown.

Residential Treatment Programs: Programs that provide extensive drug or alcohol treatment on an inpatient basis.

Respondent: Another word for defendant; the person responding to a lawsuit. In Juvenile court, the word refers to the person or persons named in a petition. When used in Practice Book Sec. 2-29 through 2-62 the word “respondent” shall mean the attorney against whom a grievance complaint or presentment has been filed or a person who is alleged to have been engaged in the unauthorized practice of law pursuant to General Statutes § 51-88.”

Rest: To be done presenting the evidence in a case, as in “the plaintiff rests”.

Restitution: Money ordered to be paid by the defendant to the victim to reimburse the victim for the costs of the crime. Generally making good, or giving the equivalent for any loss, damage or injury caused by a person’s actions. Often a condition of probation.

Restraining Order: A civil court order to protect a family or household member from physical abuse.

Return Date: The date on which the 90-day waiting period for a divorce begins. Also, the date that starts the countdown for things taking place in a case, including the deadlines for filing certain papers, including the date by which the defendant should file an appearance. Nothing happens in court on the return date and no one needs to go to court on the return date. The return date is always a Tuesday in civil and family cases. In summary process (eviction) cases, the return date is any week day, Monday through Saturday, except a holiday, usually 7 to 10 days from the date the clerk signs the summons if the summons is signed by the clerk.

Revocation Hearing: A hearing held before a judge to determine whether or not a person has violated the conditions of probation. If there is a finding that a violation has occurred, the judge may impose all or part of the original sentence.

Rule to Show Cause: Summons compelling a person to appear in court on a specific date to answer to a request that certain orders be modified or vacated.


Seal: A court order closing a case file from public review, usually in cases of youthful offenders and acquittal. Prevents the public from obtaining information on the cases.

Senior Judge: A judge who reaches the age of 65, or who meets certain other requirements and chooses senior status. Senior judges hear cases on a part time basis until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 70.

Sentences: The penalty imposed by a judge after the defendant is convicted of a crime. Sentences can be: Concurrent – Multiple sentences will be served at the same time (i.e., sentences of 10 years, 8 years and 2 years – to be served concurrently – equal a total effective sentence of 10 years.) Consecutive – The sentences are served back-to-back. The same example above would equal a total effective sentence of 20 years.

Sentencing: When a criminal defendant is brought before a judge after conviction for ordering the terms of the punishment.

Sentence Modification: A defendant’s written application to the sentencing judge or court to reduce the sentence at any time during the sentence. The judge conducts a hearing. If the original sentence was more than three years, the prosecutor must agree.

Sentence Review: A defendant’s written application to a three judge panel to review the sentence. Must be filed within 30 days after being sentenced with the court clerk. A review decision can increase or decrease the sentence.

Serious Juvenile Offender: A child who has been adjudicated by the juvenile court for a serious juvenile offense.

Serious Juvenile Offense: Certain criminal offenses listed in the Connecticut General Statutes, which are crimes against persons, serious property crimes and certain drug offenses. A juvenile charged with a Serious Juvenile Offense by police may be admitted to a Juvenile Detention Center with a prior court order and may be released only by order of a judge of the Superior Court.

Service: The legal method for giving a copy of the court papers being filed to other parties in a case.

Short Calendar: A list of cases in which hearing by the judge or magistrate is requested or required.

Slip Opinions: Opinions, or written decisions, of the Supreme Court or the Appellate Court that are publicly released prior to their official publication in the Connecticut Law Journal.

Small Claims: Civil actions to recover damages, or money, up to $5000.The rules of evidence are relaxed and people often represent themselves instead of hiring an attorney.

Special Sessions of the Superior Court: A program of the Judicial Branch where cases of a single type are heard by the same judge through the entire case. For example: Drug Session; Tax Session; Community Court.

State Referee: A retired judge who presides over cases referred by the court with agreement of counsel for both parties. Has full powers of an active trial judge.

States Attorney: An attorney who represents the state in criminal cases. The prosecutor.

Statute: A law enacted by a legislative body.

Statute of Limitations: A certain time allowed by law for starting a case. For example, six years in a contract case.

Stay: Temporarily stopping a judicial proceeding.

Stipulation: Also called a “stip.” A written agreement by the parties or their attorneys.

Subpoena: A command to appear in court to testify as a witness.

Subpoena Duces Tecum: A legal paper requiring someone to produce documents or records for a trial.

Substance Abuse Education: A community based program for drug offenders that provides education about the harmful effects of drug abuse and also supervises community service.

Substitute Charge: In a criminal case, a charge that replaces the original charge by the prosecutor.

Summary Process: An eviction case.

Summons: A legal paper that is used to start a civil case and get jurisdiction over a party.

Summons (Juvenile): A written notice issued by the court commanding a person to appear in a court at a given date and time. A summons is issued to an individual charged or other party on a petition or complaint.

Support Enforcement Officer: A person who supervises child support payments and brings parents to court to enforce child support orders. May also file legal papers to modify or change child support orders.


Testimony: Statements made by a witness or party under oath.

Time Served: A sentence of incarceration equal to the amount of time a defendant has already spent in state custody waiting for disposition of the case.

Title: Legal recognition of the ownership of property, usually proven by a document.

Tort: A civil injury or wrong to someone else, or their property.

Transcript: The official written record of everything that was said at a court proceeding, a hearing, or a deposition.

Transfer: Assignment of a case to another court location by court order.

Transfer Hearing: Juvenile Court hearing to determine whether a child, 14 or older, charged with a serious juvenile offense should have his/her case transferred to a criminal court and be subject to the same processes and penalties as an adult charged with the same crime.

Trial De Novo: A new trial or retrial in which the whole case with evidence and witnesses is presented as if no previous trial had been held.

Trial Referee: An attorney appointed by the Chief Justice to hear any civil non-jury case where the parties agree to use a trial referee and all the legal papers have been filed.


Uncared For: Legal description of a child or youth who is homeless or whose home cannot provide the specialized care which his/her physical, emotional or mental condition requires.

Unconditional Discharge: A sentence in a criminal case in which the defendant is released without imprisonment, probation supervision or conditions.


Vacate: To cancel or rescind a court order.

Venue: The court location.

Victim Services Advocate: A person who assesses a victim’s needs and helps the victim understand the court case, how to exercise their rights and how to access other resources.

Visitation: A court order deciding the amount of time a non-custodial parent may spend with his or her child, also called parenting time or access.

Violation: An offense for which the only sentence authorized is a fine.

Violation of Probation: Action or inaction that disobeys a condition of probation.

Voir Dire: “To speak the truth.” The process of questioning prospective jurors or witnesses about their qualifications.

Wage Execution: The process of deducting money from wages to pay a judgment. Also called a garnishment or attachment.

Wage Withholding: A court order to deduct child support or alimony payments from someone’s wages. All child support court orders must include an income withholding order unless both parents ask the judge not to.

Witness: A person who testifies to what they saw, heard, observed or did.

Writ: Legal paper filed to start various types of civil lawsuits.


Youth: Any person sixteen (16) to eighteen (18) years of age.

Youthful Offender: The legal status of persons who have been arrested for a crime committed when they were between the ages of 16 and 18 and who meet other requirements. All 16- and 17- year-old defendants are treated as youthful offenders, except those who have been charged with certain felonies, have already been convicted of a felony on the adult docket, or have been adjudicated as a serious juvenile offender. For defendants treated as Youthful Offenders, the information and proceedings are confidential and do not become a part of the person’s criminal record.





Official Books

White Papers Formerly issued by the British Parliament stating in brief the views of the government on a specific issue or giving an authoritative statement of facts. The whitepaper has come to be known as a policy statement published by the government on a subject of tremendous public importance.

  • Blue Books Official reports of the British Government.
  • White Books Official publications of Portugal, Germany and China.
  • Yellow Books Official records of France.
  • Grey Books Official policy statements and reports of the Belgian and Japanese Governments.
  • Green Books Official report of the Italian and Persian Governments.
  • Orange Books Official Publications of the Netherlands Government.


Important Books and their Authors

Author(s) Book(s)
A Aziz Discovery of Pakistan
Abdul Hamid Muslim Separatism in India and Pakistan
Abdul Hassan Isphahani Jinnah as I know him
Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: the Search for Saladin Akbar S. Ahmad
Abdul Kalam Azad India wins Freedom
Abu Fazal Akbar nama
Adam Smith Wealth of Nation
Ahmed Hassan Dani Quaid-i-Azam & Pakistan
Al Ghazali Hujatul Islam
Alan Campbell Johnson Mission with Mountbatten
Alastair Lamb Incomplete Partition
Al-Farabi Ara Madinatul Fazila
Allama Iqbal Bal-e-Jibril
Allama Iqbal Asrar-e-khudi
Allama Iqbal Javed Nama
Allama Iqbal Zabur-e-Ajam
Allama Iqbal Zarb-e-Kaleem
Allama Iqbal Payam-e-Mashriq
Allama Iqbal The poem Shikwah and Jawab-e-Shikwa
Allama Iqbal Bang-e-dara
Altaf Hussain Hali Mussaddas-i-Hali
Altaf Hussain Hali Shaer o Shaeri
Altaf Hussain Hali Hayat-e-Jawaid (is on the life of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan)
Altaf Hussain Hali Hayat-e-Javed
Altaf Hussain Hali Yadgar-i-Galib
Ambedkar Thought on Pakistan
Amir Khusro Laila Majnoo
Angan Khadija Mastoor
Aristotle The lyceum
Ayub Khan Friends not Masters
Azad Muhammad Hussain Darbar-i-Akbari
Bahir Ahmad Dar Religious Thought of Sayyid Ahmed Khan
Benazir Bhuto Daughter of the East
Bertrand Russel Road to Freedom
Bertrand Russel Conquest of Happiness
British parliament White Papers are policy statements published (on the subject of tremendous public importance)
C.M Doughty Travel in Arabian Desert
Carlyle Heroes and Hero-Worship
Catherine Clement Edwina and Nehru
Ch Khaiquzzaman Pathway to Pakistan
Ch Rahmat Ali Emergence of Pakistan
Charles Darwin Origin of species
Charles Dickens Great Expectations
Charles Dickens Oliver Twist
Charles Dickens Pickwick papers
Charles Dickens A Tale of Two Cities
Charles Dickens Pickwick Papers
Charles Dickens Hard Times
Coleridge  Ancient Mariner
Coleridge Kubla Khan (Poem)
Daniel Defoe Robinson Crusoe
Dan Brown The Da Vinci Code
Dante Divine Comedy
Dostoevsky The idiot
Dr. Rajenra Parsad India Divided is a book
Dr. Sachin Birth of Pakistan
Dr. Tahir Amir Birth of a tragedy
Earnest Hemingway A farewell to Arms
Earnest Hemingway The Sun also Rises
Edward Fitzgeranld Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
Edward Gibbon Decline and Fall of Roman Empire
Ernest Hamingway Old man and the Sea
F M Dostoevsky Crime and Punishment
Faiz Ahmed Faiz Naqsh-e-Faryadi
Firdausi Shahnama
G Allana Quaid-e-Azam: The Story of A Nation
G Allana Mohammad Ali Jinnah
G B Shaw Caesar and Cleopatra
G B Shaw Doctor’s Dilemma
G W Choudhry Constitutional Development of Pakistan
G W Shaw Joan of Arc
George Orwell Animal Farm
George Orwell Nineteen Eighty Four
George Bernard Shaw Arms and the Man
Goethe Faust
H H Dodwell The Cambridge History of the British Empire
Hafeez Jalandri Shahnama-i-Islam
Hector Bolitho Jinnah, Creator of Pakistan
Henry Kissinger Profiles in Courage
Henry Kissinger Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy
Henry Miller Tropic of Cancer
Hitler Mein KAMPF
Homer Odyssey (Greek)
I H Qureshi Struggle for Pakistan
I H Qureshi A short history of Pak
I H Qureshi History of Freedom Movement
Ibn Battuta Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa
Ibn Khaldun Muqaddamah
Ibn Sina Kitab al Shifa
Ibne Sina Al Qanoon fil Tib
Ilahi Bux My Last day with Quaid
Imam Ghazali Ihya-ul-Uloom
J S  Mill On liberty
Jack London  Call of the Wild-
Jaswant Sing Jinnah: India, Partition, Independence
Jagmohan. My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir
Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice
Jane Austin Sense and Sensibility
Jodi Dean Comrade: An Essay On Political Belongings
John Gray Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus
John Masefield Nine Days Wonder
John Milton Paradise Lost
John Steinbeck East of Aden
Jonathan Swift Gulliver’s Travels
K K Aziz The Making of Pakistan
K K Aziz  Party politics in Pakistan
Kalidas Raghuvamsa
Karen Armstrong  History of God
Karl Marx Das Capitol
Karl Marx and Eagles Communist Manifesto
Katherine Mayo Mother India
Khalid B Saeed Politics in Pakistan
Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri Neither Hawk Nor Dove
Kiran Bedi Freedom Behind Bars
Larry Collins Freedom at Midnight
Lawrence Ziring Pakistan the Formative Phase
Lenin The state and revolution
Leo Tolstoy War and Peace
Lewis Carrol Alice in Wonderland
Lewis Carrol Time Machine
Liaquat Ali Khan Pakistan: the Heart of Asia
M H Saiyid Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Machiavelli The Prince
Mahatma Gandhi My Experiments with Truth
Malik Hafeez Muslim Nationalism in India
Mao On contradictions
Margaret Mitchell Gone with the Wind
Mathew Arnold Sohrab and Rustam
Miguel De Cervates Don Quixote
Michael Foucault Madness and Civilizations
Mohammad Ali Choudhry The Emergence of Pakistan
Montesquieu The spirit of laws
Musarrt Hussain Zuberi Voyage through History
Nazir Ahmed Mirat ul Uroos
Nazir Yar Jung The Pakistan Issue
Nelson Mandela. Higher than Hopes
Noa Ben Artizi In the name of Sorrow and Hope
Official policy as well as reports of the Japanese government Grey Books
Official publication of the Netherlands Orange Books
Official publications of the countries like Portugal, China, and Germany White Books
Official records of France Yellow Books
Official reports of the British Government Blue Books
Official reports of the Italian government Green Books
Oscar Wild A woman of no importance
Oscar Wilde An Ideal husband
P Calvocrassi World Politics Since 1945
Parveen Shakir Khusboo
Paul Kennedy Preparing for the Twenty First Century
Paul Kennedy Rise and Fall of the Great Powers
Percival Smith India, Pakistan & the West
Philip Woodruff Man who ruled India
Plato Republic
Plato The Laws
Pope John Paul II. Crossing the Threshold of Hope
Muammar Gaddafi Green Book
R E M Wheeler Five Thousand Years of Pakistan
R.L Stevenson Treasure Island
Rabindranath Tagore Gitanjali
Richard Symonds The Making of Pakistan
Rousseau Social Contract
Rousseau  Confession
Rudyard Kipling Jungle book
Ruskin Unto This Last
Samuel Johnson Vanity of Human Wishes
Sharifuddin Pirzada Evolution of Pakistan
Sheikh Saadi Bostan
Sheikh Saadi Gulistan
Siddique Saliq Witness to surrender
Richard Burton Arabian Nights
Sikandar Hayat Khan Outline of a scheme of Indian Federation
 Syed Ahmed Khan Tehzeeb al Ikhlaq
Sri Aurobindo Life Divine
Stanley Wolpert Jinnah of Pakistan
Stanley Wolpert Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan
Stanley Woolpert Jinnah of Pakistan
Syed Abdul ala Maudoodi Tafhim ul Quran
Syed Ameer Ali The spirit of Islam
Syed Hasan Raza Pakistan Naguzeer Tha
Thomas Mooore Utopia
Tomas Carlyle French Revolution
Toni Morrison Beloved (novel)
V D Savarkar Indian War of Independence
V P Menon Transfer of Power in India
Vincent Smith Oxford History of India
W Churchill The World Crisis
Will Durrant The Lessons of History
W Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet
W Shakespeare Merchant of Venice
W Shakespeare Anthony Cleopatra
W Shakespeare As you like it
W Shakespeare Comedy of Errors
W Shakespeare Twelfth Night
W Shakespeare Much Ado About Nothing
W Shakespeare Hamlet
W W Hunter The Indian Musalimans
Whaeed-uz-Zaman Towards Pakistan
Wordsworth Revolution and Independence
Zulifkar Ali Bhutto Myth of independence
Zulifkar Ali Bhutto Foreign Policy of Pakistan


List of Famous Autobiographies

Author Name Book Name
A P J Abdul Kalam Wings of Fire
Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf
Aerosmith Walk This Way
Albert Einstein Autobiographical Notes
Anne Frank The Diary of a Young Girl
Arnold Schwarzenegger Total Recall: My Unbelievably True Life Story
Bill Clinton My Life
Babur Baburnama
Barack Obama Dreams from My Father
Benito Mussolini My Autobiography: With the Political and Social Doctrine of Fascism
Benjamin Franklin The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
Bertrand Russell The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell
Charles Darwin The Recollections of the Development of My Mind and Character
Charles Dickens Autobiographical Fragment
Charlie Chaplin My Autobiography
Dalai Lama Freedom in Exile
Hillary Rodham Clinton Living History
Jawaharlal Nehru Towards Freedom
Jean-Paul Sartre The Words
Leo Tolstoy My Confession
Margaret Thatcher Margaret Thatcher: The Autobiography
Marilyn Monroe My Story
Mahatma Gandhi The Story of My Experiments with Truth
Michael Jackson Moonwalk
Muhammad Ali The Greatest: My Own Story
Nelson Mandela A Long Walk to Freedom
Ayyub Khan Friends Not Masters
Oscar Wilde De Profundis
Benazir Bhutto Daughter of Destiny
Ronald Reagan The Reagan Diaries
Sigmund Freud An Autobiographical Study
Thomas Jefferson Autobiography 1743-1790
Usain Bolt Faster than Lightning: My Autobiography
Qudrat Ullah Shahab Shahabnama
Winston Churchill Memoirs of the Second World War
Winston Churchill My Early Life: 1874-1904


  • Another famous book by Jean-Paul Sartre is Being and Nothingness.


Books by Famous Politicians

The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream Barack Obama
Dreams From My Father Barack Obama
A Promised Land Barack Obama
Without Fear or Favour Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy
Midnight Diaries Boris Yelstin
Prison Diary Jayaprakash Narayan
Indian Philosophy Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Hindu View of Life Dr. S. Radhakrishnan
Matters of Discretion: An Autobiography I K Gujral
A View from the Outside P Chidambaram
Undaunted, Saving the Idea of India P Chidambaram
Back to Work Bill Clinton
Hard Choices Hillary Clinton
Long Walk to Freedom Nelson Mandela
Beyond Survival: Emerging Dimensions of Indian Economy Shri Pranab Mukherjee
Saga of Struggle and Sacrifice Shri Pranab Mukherjee
Challenges before the Nation Shri Pranab Mukherjee
The Dramatic Decade: The Days of Indira Gandhi Shri Pranab Mukherjee
Changing India Dr. Manmohan Singh
Exam Warriors Narendra Modi
My Unforgettable Memories Mamata Banerjee
Citizen and Society Hamid Ansari
Citizen Delhi: My Life, My Times Sheila Dikshit
India Unmade Yashwant Sinha
Golden Threshold Sarojini Naidu
The Broken Wing, Songs of Life, Death & the Spring Sarojini Naidu
The Birds of Time, Songs of Life, Death & the Spring Sarojini Naidu
The Sceptred Flute: Songs of India Sarojini Naidu
The Feather of the Dawn Sarojini Naidu
India Divided Dr. Rajendra Prasad
India Wins Freedom Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Ghubar-e-khatir Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Unhappy India Lala Lajpat Rai
Poverty and Un-British Rule in India Dadabhai Naoroji
Geeta Rahashya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
The Arctic Home in the Vedas Bal Gangadhar Tilak
The Indian War of Independence of 1857 V.D. Savarkar
The Insider PV Narasimha Rao
My Country My Life LK Advani
Wings of Fire APJ Abdul Kalam
Ignited Minds APJ Abdul Kalam
You Are Unique APJ Abdul Kalam
India 2020 APJ Abdul Kalam
Indomitable Spirit APJ Abdul Kalam
Turning Points – A Journey through Challenges APJ Abdul Kalam
Target 3 Billion APJ Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh
My Journey – Transforming Dreams into Actions APJ Abdul Kalam
Governance for Growth in India APJ Abdul Kalam
Jobs for Our Millions VV Giri
Mein Kampf Adolf Hitler
My Presidential Years R Venkataraman
My Own Boswell M Hidyatullah
My Experiments with Truth Mahatma Gandhi
Hind Swaraj Mahatma Gandhi
Key to Health Mahatma Gandhi
Discovery of India Jawaharlal Nehru
Glimpses of World History Jawaharlal Nehru
The Indian Struggle 1920-1942 Subhash Chandra Bose
My Truth Indira Gandhi


Famous Fiction Awards

Award Purpose
BookBrowse Awards Since 2000, BookBrowse has asked its members and subscribers to select the best books published each year. Through a rigorous voting process, this shortlist is then honed down to find the BookBrowse Awards Winners.
Pulitzer Prize for Letters, Drama and Music Joseph Pulitzer, a renowned journalist, established this award in 1917. Since 1984 Pulitzer winners have received their prizes from the president of Columbia University at a luncheon in May in the rotunda of the Low Library in the presence of family members, professional associates, board members, and the faculty of the School of Journalism.
Booker Prize Awarded in October each year, the Booker Prize is the UK’s top literary prize and the most watched single-book award in the English-speaking world. Until 2013 the award was open only to citizens of the Commonwealth of nations (in essence, the UK and former British colonies). As of 2014 the award is open to authors worldwide so long as their work is in English and published in the UK
The John Newbery Medal The Newbery Medal is awarded in January each year by the American Library Association for the most distinguished American children’s book published the previous year.
Edgar Awards Mystery Writers of America is the premier organization for mystery writers, professionals allied to the crime writing field, aspiring crime writers, and those who are devoted to the genre.

Books about Afghan Tribal Revolts

Start date End date Work Author(s)
1944 1945 Rebuilding Afghanistan’s National Army

(Journal of the US Army War College)

Ali Jalali
1944 1946 Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires: A New History of the Borderland David Isby
1945 1945 Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia ●       Frank Clements

Ludwig Adamec

1945 Winter 1946

(Duration: 1 year)

Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad David B. Edwards
1945 1946 Islam and Politics in Afghanistan Asta Olesen
1945 1946 Wanat : Combat Action In Afghanistan, 2008 Combat Studies Institute
1945 6 months after start The Rule of Law in Afghanistan: Missing in Inaction Whit Mason
1946 1946 Revolutions & Rebellions in Afghanistan Unknown
? Between February and May 1946 British Documents on Foreign Affairs:

Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print:

Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey and Iraq, 1952

Paul Preston

Michael Partridge

Renowned books by Stanley Wolpert

Name of the book Year of publishing
A New History of India 1977
Nehru: A Tryst With Destiny 1996
Shameful Flight 2006
Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi 2001
India 1964
India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict Or Cooperation? 2010
Nine Hours to Rama 1962


Famous Books by Arthur Conan Doyle

Name Publishing Year
The Hound of the Baskerville 1902
A Study in Scarlett 1887
The Sign of the Four 1890
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes 1892
The Lost World 1912
The Final Problem 1893
The Valley of Fear 1915



Famous books by R. L. Stevenson

Name Publishing Year
Treasure Island 1883
Kidnapped 1886
The Black Arrow Annotated 1883
Catriona 1892
Weir of Hermiston 1896
The Wrecker 1892
The Wrong Box 1889


Famous books by Ian Fleming

Name Publishing Year
Casino Royale 1953
Dr. No 1958
The Man with a Golden Gun 1965
Goldfinger 1959
Live and Let Die 1954
From Russia, With Love 1957
Thrilling Cities 1963


Famous Poets of the World

Name Country Famous Work
 Faiz Ahmed Faiz  Pakistan  Hum Dekhein Gay
Mirza Ghalib  British India  Aah Ko Chahye Ik Umar Asar Hone Tak
Ahmad Faraz Pakistan Pas Andaaz
Edgar Allen Poe United States The Raven
 William Shakespeare England  Shall I Compare Thee To A Summer’s Day?
Allama Iqbal Pakistan  Zaboor-e-Ajam
Maya Angelou United States On the Pulse of Morning
Emily Dickinson United States Hope is the thing with Feathers
Shel Silverstein United States Where the Sidewalk Ends
Robert Frost United States The Road Not Taken
Pablo Neruda Chile I Do Not Love You Except Because I Love You
E. E. Cummings United States I Carry Your Heart With Me
Thomas Hardy England Hap
Oscar Wilde Ireland A Vision
John Keats England A Thing of Beauty
William Blake England The Tyger
William Wordsworth England The Prelude
Lewis Carroll England Jabberwocky
Homer Greece The Iliad
Rumi Afghanistan Masnavi-ye-Ma’navi


  • John Keats is also known as the Poet of Beauty.


Famous Personalities Who Committed Suicide

Name Occupation Year
Robin Williams Comedian/Actor 2014
R. Budd Dwyer Politician  1987
Evelyn McHale Women’s Army Corps 1947
Marilyn Monroe Actress 1962
Kurt Cobain Singer 1994
Sylvia Plath Poet/Author 1963
Ernest Hemingway Author 1961
Hunter S. Thompson Journalist 2005
Vincent Van Gogh Painter 1890
Virginia Woolf Author 1941
Ray Combs Comedian 1996


Foreign Words & Phrases

Ab Initio: From the very beginning

Ab extra: From the outside

Ad hoc: Arrangement for some special purpose

Ad infinitum: Without limit

Ad interim: In the meantime

Ad nauseam: To a disgusting extent

Ad valorem: According to the value of

Agent provocateur: A spy who works secretly and creates disturbance

Alma mater: The institution where one has been educated

Aide de camp (pronounced as ‘Cong’): The personal attendant of a high military officer

Aide memoire: A reminder; a notebook in which things are noted

Alter ego: Fast friends

Ante meridiem: (a.m.) between midnight and noon

Anno Domini: In the year of our Lord (A.D.)

Annus mirabilis: A year of wonders

Apologia: An apologetic writing

Aqua: Water

Bona fide: Good faith, honesty, sincerity

Billet d’amour: A love-letter

Bete noire: Object of dislike

Beau ideal: Model; finest specimen

Bon voyage: A happy journey

Bizarre: Electric, fantastic; grotesque

Bon bon: Sweetmeat

Bourgeoisie: The middle class

Boulevard: A street shaded with trees

Beau monde: A false rumors or statement

Carte blanche: Full authority

Bourgeois: A member of the middle class; a merchant; concerned with material possessions and social status

Cadre: A list or rank of officers

Cortege: A train of attendants; followers

Cafe: a restaurant

Chauffeur: Motor-car driver

Coup d’etat: Sudden overthrow of an established government

Cliché: A hackneyed (much used) literary expression

Charge d’affaires: Ambassador to a small country

De facto: In fact though not in law

De jure: In law though not in fact

De novo: Afresh; from the very beginning

Dei gratia: By the grace of God

De profundis: Cry from the depth of sorrow

Debacle: Sudden route; complete defeat

Debut: First appearance on the stage or society

Divide at impera: A policy of divide and rule

Dramatis personae: Characters in a novel or drama

Denouement: End

En bloc or En masse: In a body; all together

En route: On the way

Émigré: An emigrant (one who goes and lives in another country

Ex officio: In virtue of one’s office

Ex parte: One-sided

El dorado: A country full of gold

Exempli gratia: (e.g.) for example

Exit: Leaves the stage

Exeunt: More than one go off the stage

Elite: Echoice; gentry

Esprit de corps: The spirit of belonging to the same group

En tente: Understanding

Errata: A list of errors

Façade: The front of a building

Fait accompli: Something already done or accomplished

Fiancé: one’s betrothed (male)

Fiancée: One’s betrothed (female)

Faux pas: A mistake

Facsimile: An exact copy

Genre: Particular style or kind especially of works of art or literature

Gendarmes: armed police

Honoris causa: For the sake of honour

Hauteur: Haughtiness of manner



World’s Famous Composers

& Musicians


Name Country
Anwar, Khawaja Khursheed (March 21, 1912-October 30, 1984) Pakistani
Beethoven, Ludwig van (1772-1827) German
Bizmi, Nisar (1925-March 22, 2007) Pakistani
Chopin, Frederic (1810-1849) Polish-French
Grieg, Edvard (1843-1907) Norwegian
Haydn, Franz Joseph (1732-1809) Austrian
Mehdi Hasan (1927-) Pakistani
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus (1750-1791) Austrian
Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan (1948-1997) Pakistani
Shanker Ravi (1920-) Indian
Tansen (16‘h century) Indian Sub continent
Yehudi, Menuhin (1916-1999) American
Zubin, Mehta (1936-) Indian


Books by Pakistani Authors:

Ayesha Jalal

  • The Struggle for Pakistan
  • The Pity of Partition: Manto’s Life, Times, and Work Across the India-Pakistan Divide
  • Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia
  • Self and Sovereignty
  • Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia
  • Democracy and Authoritarianism in South Asia: A Comparative and Historical Perspective
  • State of martial rule
  • The Sole Spokesperson


Fatima Bhutto

  • Songs of Blood and Sword
  • The Runaways
  • New Kings of the World: Dispatches from Bollywood, Dizi and K-Pop
  • The Shadow of the Crescent Moon
  • New Kings of the World: The Rise and Rise of Eastern Pop Culture
  • Whispers of the Desert
  • 8:50 am October 8, 2005: Stories of Hope and Courage from the Earthquake in Pakistan
  • Democracy (Penguin Petit)


Ishrat Hussain

  • Economic Management in Pakistan, 1999-2002
  • International Organizations and Nigerian Agricultural Development
  • How Did The Asian Countries Avoid the Debt Crisis?
  • Dollars, Debt and Deficits
  • Perspectives on the Nigerian Economy
  • Future Financing Needs of The Highly Indebted Countries


Famous Literary Festivals in Pakistan:

  • Hyderabad Literature Festival
  • Islamabad Literature
  • Karachi Literature Festival
  • Lahore Literary Festival
  • Sindh Literature Festival

Facts about famous personalities from media

Michael Jackson, who is famously known as the ‘King of Pop’ was an American singer and songwriter, who died in June 2009.