Food And Nutrition


Essential Nutrients

While the animal body can synthesize many of the molecules required for function from the organic precursors, there are some nutrients that need to be consumed from food. These nutrients are termed essential nutrients, meaning they must be eaten, and the body cannot produce them.

The omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and the omega-6 linoleic acid are essential fatty acids needed to make some membrane phospholipids. Vitamins are another class of essential organic molecules that are required in small quantities for many enzymes to function and, for this reason, are considered to be coenzymes. Absence or low levels of vitamins can have a dramatic effect on health. Both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins must be obtained from food. Minerals are inorganic essential nutrients that must be obtained from food. Among their many functions, minerals help in structure and regulation and are considered cofactors. Certain amino acids also must be procured from food and cannot be synthesized by the body. These amino acids are the “essential” amino acids. The human body can synthesize only 11 of the 20 required amino acids; the rest must be obtained from food.

Water-Soluble Essential Vitamins

Vitamin Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Needed by the body to process lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates; coenzyme removes CO2 from organic compounds Muscle weakness, Beriberi: reduced heart function, CNS problems Milk, meat, dried beans, whole grains
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Takes an active role in metabolism, aiding in the conversion of food to energy (FAD and FMN) Cracks or sores on the outer surface of the lips (cheliosis); inflammation and redness of the tongue; moist, scaly skin inflammation (seborrheic dermatitis) Meat, eggs, enriched grains, vegetables
Vitamin B(Niacin) Used by the body to release energy from carbohydrates and to process alcohol; required for the synthesis of sex hormones; component of coenzyme NAD+ and NADP+ Pellagra, which can result in dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death Meat, eggs, grains, nuts, potatoes
Vitamin B(Pantothenic acid) Assists in producing energy from foods (lipids, in particular); component of coenzyme A Fatigue, poor coordination, retarded growth, numbness, tingling of hands and feet Meat, whole grains, milk, fruits, vegetables
Vitamin B(Pyridoxine) The principal vitamin for processing amino acids and lipids; also helps convert nutrients into energy Irritability, depression, confusion, mouth sores or ulcers, anemia, muscular twitching Meat, dairy products, whole grains, orange juice
Vitamin B(Biotin) Used in energy and amino acid metabolism, fat synthesis, and fat breakdown; helps the body use blood sugar Hair loss, dermatitis, depression, numbness and tingling in the extremities; neuromuscular disorders Meat, eggs, legumes and other vegetables
Vitamin B(Folic acid) Assists the normal development of cells, especially during fetal development; helps metabolize nucleic and amino acids Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects and anemia Leafy green vegetables, whole wheat, fruits, nuts, legumes
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Maintains healthy nervous system and assists with blood cell formation; coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism Anemia, neurological disorders, numbness, loss of balance Meat, eggs, animal products
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Helps maintain connective tissue: bone, cartilage, and dentin; boosts the immune system Scurvy, which results in bleeding, hair and tooth loss; joint pain and swelling; delayed wound healing Citrus fruits, broccoli, tomatoes, red sweet bell peppers

Fat-Soluble Essential Vitamins

Vitamin Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
Vitamin A (Retinol) Critical to the development of bones, teeth, and skin; helps maintain eyesight, enhances the immune system, fetal development, gene expression Night-blindness, skin disorders, impaired immunity Dark green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange vegetables, fruits, milk, butter
Vitamin D Critical for calcium absorption for bone development and strength; maintains a stable nervous system; maintains a normal and strong heartbeat; helps in blood clotting Rickets, osteomalacia, immunity Cod liver oil, milk, egg yolk

Produced by skin when it comes in contact with sunlight.

Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Lessens oxidative damage of cells and prevents lung damage from pollutants; vital to the immune system Deficiency is rare; anemia, nervous system degeneration Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, grains
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Essential to blood clotting Bleeding and easy bruising Leafy green vegetables, tea


Minerals and their Function in the Human Body

Mineral Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
*Calcium Needed for muscle and neuron function; heart health; builds bone and supports synthesis and function of blood cells; nerve function Osteoporosis, rickets, muscle spasms, impaired growth Milk, yogurt, fish, green leafy vegetables, legumes
*Chlorine Needed for production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach and nerve function; osmotic balance Muscle cramps, mood disturbances, reduced appetite Table salt
Copper (trace amounts) Required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase; cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis Copper deficiency is rare Liver, oysters, cocoa, chocolate, sesame, nuts
Iodine Required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones Goiter Seafood, iodized salt, dairy products
Iron Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin, to prevent anemia Anemia, which causes poor concentration, fatigue, and poor immune function Red meat, leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, whole grains
*Magnesium Required cofactor for ATP formation; bone formation; normal membrane functions; muscle function Mood disturbances, muscle spasms Whole grains, leafy green vegetables
Manganese (trace amounts) A cofactor in enzyme functions; trace amounts are required Manganese deficiency is rare Common in most foods
Molybdenum (trace amounts) Acts as a cofactor for three essential enzymes in humans: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase Molybdenum deficiency is rare  
*Phosphorus A component of bones and teeth; helps regulate acid-base balance; nucleotide synthesis Weakness, bone abnormalities, calcium loss Milk, hard cheese, whole grains, meats
*Potassium Vital for muscles, heart, and nerve function Cardiac rhythm disturbance, muscle weakness Legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, bananas
Selenium (trace amounts) A cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase; trace amounts are required Selenium deficiency is rare Common in most foods
*Sodium Systemic electrolyte required for many functions; acid-base balance; water balance; nerve function Muscle cramps, fatigue, reduced appetite Table salt
Zinc (trace amounts) Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase Anemia, poor wound healing, can lead to short stature Common in most foods
*Greater than 200mg/day required



  • Fats are composed of long chain fatty acids and glycerol.
  • Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • Proteins are composed of amino acids. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
  • Proteins build muscles and used by body builders.
  • Proteins are present in muscles, bones, and tissues.
  • Hormones are made of proteins. Enzymes are made of proteins.
  • Enzymes are biological catalysts. They speed up the biochemical reactions in the body.
  • Man can survive without food for more than three weeks.
  • Man can survive without water for almost three days.
  • Preservatives are used to prevent food from decaying. they preserve food and keep it fresh for a time period. Vinegar is one of the preservatives.
  • There is zero cholesterol in egg white. But cholesterol level in egg yolk is very high, about 211 mg.
  • 57% of proteins in egg are present in egg white and 43% in yolk.
  • Milk contain 87% water.
  • The number of calories in fats is highest.
  • Vegetables have lowest calories.
  • The fat content of milk reduces to great extent when it is skimmed
  • Protein are present in meats, sea food, beans and legumes, eggs, nuts, and dairy products.
  • Carbohydrates are present in bread, wheat, fruits in the form of fructose or sucrose, potatoes in the form of starch, sugary items, starchy vegetables, etc.
  • Fats are present in certain foods including eggs, meat, dairy products, nuts, etc
  • Whole grain wheat flour has 11% protein.
  • Instant energy is given by carbohydrates.
  • Fiber is the non digestible part of the food. It helps in preventing constipation.
  • Green vegetables are good source of vitamins and minerals.
  • Yeast rises bread in the bread production. It converts larger starch molecules into smaller sugar molecules through the process of fermentation. Ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced in this process.
  • Calorie is the unit of energy in food items.
  • Honey contains fructose and glucose. Fruits contain fructose. Normal sugar has sucrose in it.
  • Milk has lactose in it.
  • Fat content is highest in ghee.
  • Energy value of fats and oils is 2.25 times more than carbohydrates and proteins.
  • 1 gram of carbohydrate has 4 calories.
  • 1 gram of fat has 9 calories.
  • 1 gram of protein has 4 calories.
  • Wheat has about 13% protein, 71% carbohydrate and 1.5% fat.
  • Bananas, pineapple, grapes, mango, apples have high carbohydrate content.
  • There is zero cholesterol in egg white. But cholesterol level in egg yolk is very high.
  • Sulphur is present in leafy green vegetables, fish, chicken, eggs, nuts, legumes, chickpeas, etc.


Sciences and Their Subjects of Study




  • Acarology, the study of ticks and mites
  • Actinobiology, the study of the effects of radiation on living organisms
  • Actinology, the study of the effect of light on chemicals
  • Aerobiology, a branch of biology that studies organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal spores, very small insects and pollen, which are passively transported by the air.
  • Aerology, the study of the atmosphere
  • Aetiology, the medical study of the causation of disease
  • Agnoiology, the study of things of which we are by nature ignorant, or of things which cannot be known
  • Agrobiology, the study of plant nutrition and growth in relation to soil conditions
  • Agrology
  • Canada: the art and science of agriculture
  • Non-Canada: the study of soils
  • Agrostology, the study of grasses
  • Algology, the study of algae
  • Allergology, the study of the causes and treatment of allergies; a branch of medicine
  • Andrology, the study of male health and disease
  • Anesthesiology, the study of anesthesia and anesthetics; a branch of medicine
  • Angelology, the study of angels
  • Angiology, the study of the anatomy of blood and lymph vascular systems
  • Anthropology, the study of humans
  • Apiology, the study of bees (apiaries)
  • Arachnology, the study of spiders and their kind
  • Archaeology, the study of past cultures through the analysis of material remains
  • Archaeozoology, the study of relationships between humans and animals over time through examination of animal remains at archaeological sites (also see Zooarchaeology)
  • Areology, the study of Mars
  • Assyriology, the study of the Assyrians
  • Astacology, the study of crayfish
  • Asteroseismology, the study of the internal structures of stars as revealed by sound waves (see also Helioseismology).
  • Astrobiology, the study of origin of life
  • Astrogeology, the study of geology of celestial bodies (e.g., planets, asteroids, comets)
  • Astrology, the study of the purported influence(s) of celestial bodies on earthly affairs
  • Atmology, the study of the laws and phenomena of aqueous vapors
  • Audiology, the study of hearing; a branch of medicine
  • Autecology, the study of the ecology of any individual species
  • Auxology, the study of human growth.
  • Axiology, the study of the nature of values and value judgements


  • Bacteriology, the study of bacteria
  • Balneology, the scientific study of baths, bathing and of their application to disease
  • Bioclimatology, the study of the effects of climate on living organisms
  • Geomorphology, or ecogeomorphology, the study of interactions between organisms and geomorphological processes
  • Bioecology, the study of the relationship of organisms to each other and to their environment
  • Biology, the study of life
  • Biometeorology, the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions on living organisms
  • Biotechnology industrial use of living organisms or their components to improve human health and food reduction
  • Boxology is the study of schematic layouts, for example of corporate org charts.
  • Bryology, the study of bryophytes


  • Campanology, the study and the art of bell ringing
  • Cardiology, the study of the heart
  • Cariology, the study of cells
  • Cereology, the study of crop circles
  • Cetology, the study of cetaceans – whales, dolphins, and porpoise
  • Characterology, the study of character
  • Christology, the theological study of redemption (christos > christein: to sacrament), not only speaking of Christianity but also extended to religion in general
  • Chorology, the study of the relationship of biological or other phenomena to their locations
  • Chronology the study of things in order of time or the study of time
  • Climatology, the study of the climate
  • Codicology, the study of the preparation of books and manuscripts (ink, paper, vellum etc)
  • Coleopterology, the study of beetles
  • Coniology, the study of dust in the atmosphere and its effects on plants and animals, also spelled “koniology”.
  • Conchology, the study of shells and of molluscs
  • Cosmology, the study of the cosmos or our place in it.
  • Cosmetology, the study of cosmetics and their use.
  • Craniology, the study of the characteristics of the skull
  • Criminology, the scientific study of crime.
  • Cryology, the study of very low temperatures and related phenomena.
  • Cryptology, the study of how to encrypt and decrypt secret messages
  • Cryptozoology, the study of animals that may or may not be mythical
  • Cynology, the study of dogs
  • Cytomorphology, the study of the structure of cells
  • Cytology, the study of cells


  • Deltiology, the study of, but more often the collecting of picture postcards
  • Demonology, the study of demons
  • Dendrochronology, the study of the age of trees and the records in their rings
  • Dendrology, the study of trees
  • Deontology, in ethics, the study of duty.
  • Dermatology, the field of medicine that deals with the skin
  • Dermatopathology, the field of dermatological anatomical pathology
  • Desmology, the study of ligaments
  • Dialectology, the study of dialects
  • Dipterology, the study of flies



  • Ecclesiology, the study of Church architecture and decoration, or separately the study of the Christian Church
  • Ecogeomorphology, or geomorphology, the study of interactions between organisms and geomorphological processes
  • Ecohydrology, the study of interactions among organisms and the water cycle.
  • Ecology, the study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. Sometimes spelled “œcology”.
  • Ecophysiology, the study of the interrelationship between an organism’s physical functioning and its environment
  • Edaphology, a branch of soil science that studies the influence of soil on life.
  • Egyptology, the study of the ancient Egyptians
  • Electrophysiology, the study of the relationship between electric phenomena and bodily processes
  • Embryology, the study of embryos
  • Emetology, the study or knowledge of emetics
  • Endocrinology, the study of internal secretory glands
  • Enigmatology, the study of puzzles
  • Enology (or Oenology), the study of wine and winemaking
  • Entomology, the study of insects
  • Enzymology, the study of enzymes
  • Epidemiology, the study of the origin and spread of diseases
  • Epistemology, the study of the nature and origins of knowledge
  • Escapology, the practice of escaping from restraints or other traps.
  • Eschatology, a branch of theology concerned with the final events in the history of the world or of mankind
  • Ethnology, the study of race
  • Ethnomusicology, the study of music in society, usually non-western music
  • Ethology, the study of animal behaviour
  • Etiology, same as Aetiology
  • Etymology, the study of word origins
  • Eulogy, the speech of praise
  • Evolutionary biology, the study of the process of biological evolution
  • Evolutionary psychology, the study of the process of (usually) human psychological evolution.
  • Exobiology, the study of life in outer space


  • Felinology, the study of cats
  • Fetology, the study of the fetus, especially when within the uterus. Sometimes spelled foetology.
  • Formicology, the study of ants
  • Fungology, fungus + -ology, see mycology.


  • Garbology – study of refuse and trash
  • Gastrology or Gastroenterology- diseases of stomach and intestines
  • Gemmology or Gemology, the study of gemstones and ornamental materials
  • Genealogy (commonly misspelled and mispronounced as “genealogy”), the study of relationships within families particularly with a view to constructing family trees
  • Gynecology, the study of genetic differences in relation to the environment
  • Geobiology, the study of the biosphere and its relations to the lithosphere and atmosphere.
  • Geochronology, the study of the age of the Earth
  • Geology, the study of the Earth, describes the rocky parts of earth crust and its historic development.
  • Geomorphology, the study of present-day landforms, traditionally on Earth but with increasing frequency on nearby planetary objects
  • Gerontology, the study of old age
  • Glaciology, the study of glaciers
  • Grammatology, the study of writing systems. Also the study of deconstructive literary criticism, popularized in the 1960s by Jacques Derrida
  • Graphology, the study of handwriting for the purpose of analysing the character of the writer
  • Gynaecology or Gynecology, the study of medicine relating to women, or of women in general


  • Hematology/Haematology, the study of blood
  • Heliology, the study of the Sun
  • Helioseismology, the study of vibrations and oscillations in the Sun
  • Helminthology, the study of parasitic worms.
  • Hepatology, the study of the liver; a branch of medicine
  • Herbology, the study of the therapeutic use of plants
  • Herpetology, the study of reptiles and amphibians
  • Heterotopology, the study of true bugs.
  • Hippology, study of horses
  • Histology, the study of living tissues
  • Histopathology, the study of the (microscopic) structure of diseased tissues
  • Historiology, the study of the writings and practices of historians
  • Horology, the study of making timepieces, measuring time and timekeeping (also the study of time)
  • Hydrogeology, the study of underground water
  • Hydrology, the study of water
  • Hypnology, the study of sleep


  • Ichthyology, the study of fish
  • Ichnology, the study of fossil footprints, tracks and burrows
  • Immunology, the study of the immune system
  • Islamology, the study of the Islam


  • Japanology, the study of Japanese people


  • Karyology, the study of karyotypes (a branch of cytology)
  • Killology, the study of human beings killing other human beings (Grossman’s theory)
  • Kinesiology, the study of movement in relation to human anatomy; a branch of medicine
  • Kremlinology, the study of the Soviet Union
  • Kymatology, the study of waves or wave motions


  • Laryngology, the study of the larynx, or voice box; a branch of medicine
  • Lepidopterology, the study of butterflies and moths
  • Lexicology, the study of the significance and application of words
  • Limnology, the study of freshwater environments, particularly lakes
  • Lithology, the study of rocks
  • Ludology, the study of video games
  • Lymphology, the study of the lymph system and glands



  • Malacology, the study of mollusks
  • Mammalogy, the study of mammals
  • Mereology, a branch of logic focusing on the study of part-whole relationships
  • Meteorology, the study of weather
  • Methodology, (properly) the study of methods
  • Metrology, the study of measurement
  • Microbiology, the study of microorganisms.
  • Micrology, the science of preparing and handling microscopic objects for study.
  • Mineralogy, the study of minerals
  • Mixology, the study or skill of preparing mixed drinks.
  • Molinology, the study of windmills, watermills and animal engines.
  • Monadology, a book by Leibniz on the study of his theory of monads.
  • Morphology, the study of forms that is used in several other fields (biology, linguistics, astronomy, etc.)
  • Musicology, the study of music
  • Mycology, the study of fungi
  • Myology, the scientific study of muscles
  • Myrmecology, the study of ants
  • Mythology, the study of myths


  • Nanotechnology, the study and design of machines at the molecular level
  • Nanotribology, the study of friction at very small (atomic) scale
  • Nematology, the study of nematodes
  • Neonatology, the study of diseases and the care of newborn infants; a branch of pediatrics/paediatrics
  • Nephology, the study of clouds
  • Nephrology, the study of the kidneys and their diseases, a branch of medicine
  • Neurology, the study of nerves
  • Neuropathology, the study of neural diseases
  • Neurophysiology, the study of the functions of the nervous system
  • Nosology, the study of disease classification
  • Numerology, the study of numbers (often in a non-mathematical sense)


  • Oceanology, the study of oceans
  • Odonatology, the study of dragonflies and damselflies
  • Odontology, the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth
  • Oenology, the study of wine
  • Omnology, the study of everything
  • Oncology, the study of cancer
  • Oneirology, the study of dreams
  • Ontology, the study of existence
  • Oology, the study of eggs
  • Ophthalmology, the study of the eyes
  • Organology, the study of musical instruments (not just organs; alternatively, the study of anatomical organs
  • Ornithology, the study of birds
  • Orology, the study of mountains and their mapping
  • Orthopterology, the study of grasshoppers and crickets
  • Osteology, the study of bones
  • Otolaryngology, the study of the ear and throat; a branch of medicine
  • Otology, the study of the structure, function, and pathology of the ear
  • Otorhinolaryngology, the same as otolaryngology


  • Paleontology, the study of ancient creatures
  • Paleoanthropology, the study of ancient humans and human origin
  • Paleoclimatology, the study of climate prior to the widespread availability of records of temperature, precipitation, and other instrumental data
  • Paleoecology, the study of past environments using the fossils of plants and animals
  • Palynology, the study of pollen
  • Parapsychology, the study of paranormal or psychic phenomenon that defy conventional scientific explanations
  • Parasitology, the study of parasites
  • Pathology, the study of illness
  • Pedology (soil study)
  • Pedology (children study)
  • Penology, the study of prison management and criminal rehabilitation.
  • Personology, a variant of physiognomy
  • Petrology, the study of rocks
  • Pharmacology, the study of drugs
  • Phenology, the study of periodic biological phenomena such as flowering, migration, breeding, etc.
  • Phenomenology, the study and science of phenomena as distinct from the science of actual existence or being; also a movement founded by Husserl which studies conscious experience without its metaphysical concerns
  • Phlebology, a branch of medicine that deals with the venous system
  • Phonology, the study of vocal sounds
  • Phrenology, the derivation of a person’s character traits, by studying the shape of their skull
  • Phycology, the study of algae
  • Physiology, the study of bodies, usually of animals
  • Phytology, the study of plants; botany
  • Planetology, the study of planets and solar systems
  • Planktology, the study of plankton
  • Pneumology, a synonym of Pulmonology
  • Pomology, the scientific study and cultivation of fruits
  • Primatology, the study of primates
  • Psychobiology, the study and psychology of organisms with regard to their functions and structures
  • Psychology, the study of mental processes in humans
  • Psychopharmacology, the study of psychotropic or psychiatric drugs
  • Psychophysiology, the study of the physiological bases of psychological processes
  • Pulmonology is the specialty in medicine that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract.


  • Radiology, the study of rays, usually ionising radiation
  • Reflexology, originally the study of reflexes or of reflex responses; but see also non-study list
  • Rheology, the study of flow
  • Rheumatology, the study of rheumatic diseases, a branch of medicine
  • Rhinology, the study of the nose and its diseases
  • Ripperology, the study of Jack the Ripper and the crimes associated with him


  • Sarcology, a subsection of anatomy that studies the soft parts. It includes myology, angiology, neurology, and splanchnology
  • Scatology, the study of feces
  • Sedimentology, a branch of geology that studies sediments.
  • Seismology, the study of earthquakes
  • Selenology, the study of the moon
  • Semiology the study of signs
  • Serology, the study of blood serum
  • Serpentology, the study of snakes
  • Sexology, the study of sex
  • Sindonology, the study of the Shroud of Turin
  • Sinology, the study of China
  • Sitiology, dietetics, the study of diet. Also, a treatise on diet. Also spelled “sitology”
  • Sociology, the study of society
  • Sociobiology, the study of the effect of evolution on ethology
  • Somnology, the study of sleep, also: hypnology
  • Somatology, study of human characteristics
  • Soteriology the study of the doctrine of salvation, especially as related to Christianity
  • Sovietology, the study of communist Soviet Union
  • Speleology, the study or exploration of caves
  • Sporalogy, a parody of astrology
  • Stemmatology, a discipline that attempts to reconstruct the transmission of a text (especially a text in manuscript form) on the basis of relations between the various surviving manuscripts
  • Stomatology, study of the mouth and its diseases.
  • Sumerology, the study of the Sumerians.
  • Symbology, the study and interpretation of symbols, or a set of symbols. Also used for types of barcodes
  • Symptomatology, the study of symptoms
  • Synecology, the study of the ecological interrelationships among communities of organisms


  • Taxology, a synonym for taxonomy
  • Technology, the study of the practical arts (but see above)
  • Teleology, the study of ends or final causes
  • Teratology, the study of wonders, or monsters
  • Terminology, the usage and study of terms.
  • Thanatology, the study of physical, psychological and social problems associated with dying.
  • Thermology, the study of heat.
  • Theology, the study in religion
  • Tocology, the study of childbirth, sometimes spelled “tokology”.
  • Tonology, the study of intonation in speech
  • Topology, the mathematical study of closeness and connectedness
  • Toxicology, the study of poisons
  • Traumatology, the study of wounds and injuries caused by accidents or assaults and their surgical treatment and repair; a branch of medicine
  • Tribology, the study of friction and lubrication
  • Trichology, the study of hair and scalp
  • Typology, the study of classification


  • Urology, the study and treatment of diseases of the urogenital tract, a branch of medicine. Sometimes spelled “urology”.
  • Ufology, the study of Unidentified flying object (UFO) phenomena.


  • Vaccinology, the study of vaccines
  • Venereology, the study of venereal diseases
  • Vexillology, the study of flags
  • Victimology, the study of victims of crime, often applied to characterizing the criminal
  • Virology, the study of viruses
  • Volcanology (also spelled volcanology), the study of volcanoes and related phenomena (traps)


  • Xenobiology, the study of non-terrestrial life
  • Xylology, the study of wood


  • Zooarchaeology, the study and analysis of animal remains at archaeological sites to reconstruct relationships between people, animals, and their environment (also see Archaeozoology)
  • Zoology, the study of animals
  • Zymology, the study of fermentation


Scientific Instruments and Appliances


  • Altimeter is a special type of aneroid barometer, used in measuring altitudes.
  • Ammeter is an instrument to measure the strength of an electric current.
  • Anemometer is an instrument to measure the velocity and find the direction of the wind.
  • Audiometer is an instrument to measure differences in hearing.
  • Barometer is used for measuring atmospheric pressure.
  • Binocular is an optical instrument designed for magnified view of distant objects by both eyes simultaneously.
  • Calorimeter is an instrument for measuring quantities of heat.
  • Chronometer is a clock to determine the longitude of a vessel of sea.
  • Clinical Thermometer is a thermometer for measuring the temperature of the human body.
  • Calorimeter is an instrument for comparing intensities of colour.
  • Commutator is an instrument to change or reverse the direction of an electric current. In dynamo used to convert the alternating current into direct current.
  • Computer is a technical device designed to find instantaneous solutions of huge and complex calculations based on the information already fed.
  • Dynamo is a device for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • Electroscope is an instrument for detecting the presence of electric charge.
  • Galvanometer is an instrument for measuring electric current.
  • Hydrometer is an instrument for measuring the relative density of liquids.
  • Hydrophone is an instrument for measuring sound underwater.
  • Hygrometer is an instrument for measuring the relative humidity of the atmosphere.
  • Hygroscope is an instrument to show the changes in atmospheric humidity.
  • Lactometer is an instrument for measuring the relative density of milk.
  • Micrometer is an instrument used for accurately measuring small distances or angles.
  • Manometer is an instrument to measure the pressure of gases.
  • Magnetometer is an instrument used to compare the magnetic moments and fields,
  • Mariner’s Compass is an apparatus for determining direction, graduated to indicate 33 directions. The “N” point on the dial indicates the North Pole and the “S” point, South Pole.
  • Microscope is an instrument for magnified view of very small objects.
  • Periscope is an apparatus for viewing objects lying above the eye level of the observer and whose direct vision is obstructed. It consists of a tube bent twice at right angles and having plane mirrors at these bends inclined at angles of 45 to the tube.
  • Photometer is an instrument for comparing the luminous intensity of the sources of light.
  • Planimeter is a mechanical integrating instrument to measure the area of a plane surface.
  • Pycnometer is an instrument used to measure the density and coefficient of expansion of liquid.
  • Pyrheliometer is an instrument for measuring solar radiations.
  • Pyrometers are thermometers to measure high temperatures.
  • Quadrant is an instrument for measuring altitudes and angles in navigation and astronomy.
  • Quartz clock is a highly accurate clock used in astronomical observations and other precision work.
  • Radio micrometer is an instrument for measuring heat radiations.
  • Rain gauge is an instrument for measuring rainfall.
  • Refractometer is an instrument used to measure the refractive index of a substance.
  • Resistance thermometer is used for determining the electrical resistance of a conductor.
  • Salinometer is a type of hydrometer used to determine the concentration of salt solutions by measuring their densities.
  • Seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and origin of earthquake shocks.
  • Scotograph is an instrument used to write without seeing anything or in darkness. It aids blind people to write.
  • Screw gauge is used to measure size, length, or diameter of the object but cannot measure internal diameter.
  • Sextant is an instrument used for measurement of angular distances between two objects.
  • Spectroscope is an instrument used for spectrum analysis.
  • Spectrometer is a type of spectroscope so calibrated to make it suitable for the precise measurement of refractive indices.
  • Spherometer is an instrument used for accurately measuring the curvature of spherical objects.
  • Sphygmomanometer is an apparatus for measuring blood pressure.
  • Spring balance is used to measure the mass of a body. It is preferred only when quick but approximate determinations are to be carried out.
  • Stereoscope is an optical device to see two dimensional pictures as having depth and solidity.
  • Stethoscope is a medical instrument for hearing and analyzing the sound of heart and lungs.
  • Stroboscope is an instrument used for viewing the objects moving rapidly with a periodic motion and to see them as if they were at rest.
  • Tangent galvanometer is an instrument for measuring the strength of direct current.
  • Telemeter is an apparatus for recording physical events happening at a distance.
  • Teleprinter is a communication medium for automatic sending, receiving and printing of telegraphic messages from distant places.
  • Telescope is an instrument for viewing distant objects as magnified.
  • Television is an instrument used for transmitting the visible moving images by means of wireless waves.
  • Thermometer is an instrument to measure the temperature.
  • Thermoscope is used for measuring the temperature change (approximately) of the substances by noting the corresponding change in volume.
  • Thermostat is an automatic device for regulating constant temperatures.
  • Transistor is a small device which may be used to amplify currents and perform other functions usually performed by a thermionic value.
  • Vernier is an adjustable scale with marking of 10 sub-divisions of one-tenth of an inch or any other suitable marking for measuring small sub-divisions of scale. Vernier calipers is used to measure length or diameter. It can also measure internal diameter of the cylinder.
  • Viscometer is an instrument for measuring the viscosity, i.e. the property of resistance of a fluid to relative motion within itself.
  • Voltmeter is an instrument to measure potential difference between two points.

Important Laws and Principles

Archimedes Principle: The buoyant force on an object equals the weight of the fluid it displaces. In equation form, Archimedes’ principle is

FB=wfl,size 12{F rSub { size 8{B} } =w rSub { size 8{“fl”} } } {}


Where FG size 12{F rSub {size 8{B} } } {} is the buoyant force and wfl size 12{w rSub { size 8{“fl”} } } {} is the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. Archimedes’ principle is valid in general, for any object in any fluid, whether partially or totally submerged.

Avogadro’s Law: Equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.

Black Body Radiation: A black body absorbs heat or radiates heat more quickly than any other body.

Boiling Point: It increases with the increase of pressure. It is the point at which the atmospheric pressure and pressure of the liquid becomes equal. At lower atmospheric pressure, liquid boils at lower temperature. That’s why boiling point of water is lower at higher altitudes.

The presence of impurities also raises the boiling point of a liquid.

 Centre of Gravity: A body will remain at rest only if the vertical line through the centres of gravity passes through the base of support of the body.

 Coulomb’s Law: The force between the two electric charges reduces to a quarter of its former value when the distance between them is doubled.

 Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis: The amount of chemical change during electrolysis is proportional to the charge passed. The masses of substances liberated or deposited by the same quantity of electric charge are proportional to their chemical equivalents.

Law of Conservation of Matter: The law of conservation of matter summarizes many scientific observations about matter: It states that there is no detectable change in the total quantity of matter present when matter converts from one type to another (a chemical change) or changes among solid, liquid, or gaseous states (a physical change).

First Law of Thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in internal energy of a system equals the net heat transfer into the system minus the net work done by the system. In equation form, the first law of thermodynamics is


Lenz’s Law: When an electric current is induced by a change in magnetic field, the induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the change of field which causes the induction.

 Mass – Energy Equation: E = mc2, where E = quantity of energy released from the annihilation of matter of mass ‘m’, c = velocity of light. It implies that mass and energy are interchangeable.

 Newton’s Law of Cooling: The rate at which a body cools or loses its heat to its surroundings is proportional to the excess of mean temperature of the body over that of the surroundings, provided this temperature excess is not too large.

 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them. The force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

 Newton’s Laws of Motion:

First Law: A body at rest remains at rest, or, if in motion, remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force. It is also called law of inertia.

Second Law: The acceleration of a system is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the net external force acting on the system, and inversely proportional to its mass.

Third Law: Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body, the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that it exerts.

 Ohm’s Law: The current that flows through most substances is directly proportional to the voltage Vsize 12{V} {} applied to it.

 Rectilinear Propagation of Light: Light travels in a straight line. Total internal reflection takes place when a ray of light tries to pass from a denser medium to a rarer medium at an angle of incidence more than the critical angle.