International Organizations

International Organizations

United Nations Organization

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization founded on 24 October 1945. The United Nation Charter was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organizations. The term United Nations was first coined by the then United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Second World War.

Facts about United Nations

UN has 6 major organs, namely:

  • General Assembly (as of August 2019 it has 193 member states): Each year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session.
  • Security Council: It has 15 members in total, 5 members are permanent while 10 are non-permanent. Non-permanent members serve a term of 2 years.
  • China was admitted in the United Nations Organization in 1971.
  • Economic and Social Council: It comprises 54 Members, elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term.
  • Trusteeship Council
  • International Court of Justice
  • Secretariat

 Related Information

  • There are 6 official languages of the UN, they are: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
  • The UN Commission on Human Rights was replaced with the UN Human Rights Council in 2006.
  • Pakistan has become a non-permanent member of the Security Council for 7 times, most recently in 2012-2013.

 United Nations Observer Status

United Nation Observer Status is provided to international organizations and non UN member states. It allows these entities and non-member states to take part in the work of the UN General Assembly, though their contribution is subject to limitations.

To Date Two Countries have Observer Status

  • Palestine got observer state status on 29 November, 2012 when the UN General Assembly passed resolution 67/19.
  • Holy See was granted observer status on 6th April 1964.

Permanent Members of United Nations Security Council


  1. United States
  2. Russia (Formerly USSR)
  3. United Kingdom
  4. France
  5. China

*China was the last country to become a permanent member of the Security Council.

The Presidency of the UN Security Council rotates each month among the member States.

The non-permanent members of the Security Council are elected in the following pattern:

  • 5 from African and Asian States.
  • 1 from Eastern European State.
  • 2 from Latin America
  • 2 from Western Europe and other states.

 List of Secretary Generals of UN

  • António Guterres (Portuguese)

Took Office: 2017

Term of Office: 2007-2016

Term of Office: 1997-2006

Term of Office: 1992-1996

Term of Office: 1982-1991

Term of Office: 1972-1981

Term of Office: 1961-1971

Term of Office: 1953-1961

Term of Office: 1946-1952

Gladwyn Jeb (UK) served as acting Secretary-Secretary-General from October 1945-1 February 1946.

 Structure of the United Nations

Organ Total Members
General Assembly 193
Security Council 15
Economic and Social Council 54
Trusteeship Council 5
International Court of Justice 15
Secretariat 193

 United Nations languages

United Nations has recognized a total of six working languages:

  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • English
  • French
  • Russian
  • Spanish

 Headquarters of UN Specialized Agencies

UN Specialized Agency Headquarters
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Geneva, Switzerland
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Rome, Italy
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Montreal, Quebec, Canada
International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) Rome, Italy
International Labor Organization (ILO) Geneva, Switzerland
International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, United Kingdom
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Washington D.C., United States of America
International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Geneva, Switzerland
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Paris, France
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) Vienna, Austria
Universal Postal Union (UPU) Berne, Switzerland
World Bank Group (WBG) Washington D.C., United States of America
World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva, Switzerland
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Geneva, Switzerland
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Geneva, Switzerland
World Tourism Organization (UNWTO or WTO) Madrid, Spain
World Trade Organization (WTO) Geneva, Switzerland
International Organization for Migration (IOM) Geneva, Switzerland
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Vienna, Austria

Brief Notes on Some Commonly Questioned International Organizations

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

NAM was established in 1961 in Belgrade, Yugoslavia. The idea of NAM was first discussed during the Asia-Africa conference held in Ban dung, Indonesia (1955). Its main founding members were Josip Tito the then Yugoslav President and Jawaharlal Nehru the then PM of India. First NAM Summit Conference was held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia in September 1961. To date it has 120 member states, 17 observer states and 10 international organizations. Its coordinating bureau is situated in New York, USA and its current chairperson is Nicolas Maduro. Its summits are held after every three years. It was established during the time of the Cold War with the aim of maintaining neutrality by either supporting or going against any world power.


SAARC was established on 8 December 1985 in Dhaka, headquartered in Kathmandu, Nepal. It aims to promote socio-economic welfare of the people of South Asia. First SAARC summit was held in Dhaka 6-8 December 1985. Its first Secretary-General was Abul Ahsan (Bangladesh) from 16 January to 1 October 1989 and its current (14th) Secretary-General is Esala Ruwan Weerakoon (Sri Lanka).  Currently it has 8 member states. The 19th SAARC summit was scheduled to be held in Pakistan from 15-16 November 2016 but it got cancelled in the aftermath of the Uri attack, India. Maldives is a member state of SAARC with the highest literacy rate.

Facts about SAARC Summits

Name City Date
First SAARC Summit Dhaka 1985
Second SAARC Summit Bangalore 1986
Third SAARC Summit Kathmandu, 1987
Fourth  Summit Islamabad 1988
Fifth Summit Male 1990
Sixth Summit Colombo 1991
Seventh Summit Dhaka 1993
Eight Summit Male 1997
Ninght Summit Islamabad 2016 (cancelled)


Facts about Economic Cooperation Organization

  • In 1985, the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) was established by Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey to promote economic, technical, and cultural cooperation among the member states
  • ECO is the successor organization of Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD) which remained in existence since 1964 up to 1979. In 1992, the Organization was expanded to include seven new members, namely: Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
  • The transport and communications sector, since the early years of ECO, is on the top of the agenda. Key documents in this field are: the Quetta Plan of Action; the Istanbul Declaration (ECO Long Term Perspectives); the Almaty Outline Plan for the Development of Transport Sector in the ECO region; the Ashgabat Declaration of 1997; the Programme of Action for ECO Decade of Transport and Communications; and the Transit Transport Framework Agreement

 Largest Ambulance Service in the World

Established in 1951, Pakistan has the world’s largest ambulance service – (Guinness record) Pakistan’s Edhi Foundation, which is also listed in the Guinness Book of World Records, operates the world’s largest ambulance network.

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Creation of SCO was announced on 15 June 2001 and its charter was formally signed in June 2002 which entered into force on 19 September 2003. Its predecessor organization was Shanghai Five Group which was established on 26 April 1996. Currently it has 8 member states, headquartered in Beijing, China. Its current Secretary General is Vladimir Norov. Pakistan became the full-member of SCO on 9 June 2017 at its summit in Astana, Kazakhstan. India is also a member of SCO. Its official languages are Russian and Chinese. SCO is usually referred to as Alliance of the East.


Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries is an intergovernmental organization of 13 oil exporting member States, established in September 1960 at Baghdad, headquartered in Vienna, Austria since 1965. At its inception it comprised 5 member nations. OPEC aims to regulate the petroleum prices.

Former member countries of OPEC

Country Region Membership Years
Ecuador South America 1973–1992, 2007–2020
Indonesia Southeast Asia 1962–2008, Jan–Nov 2016
Qatar Middle East 1961–2019

 Member states of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)

Algeria Angola Congo
Equatorial Guinea Gabon Iran
Iraq Kuwait Libya
Nigeria Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates

 Former member countries of OPEC

Country Region Membership Years
Ecuador South America 1973–1992, 2007–2020
Indonesia Southeast Asia 1962–2008, Jan–Nov 2016
Qatar Middle East 1961–2019


In 1954, the United States, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand and Pakistan formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, or SEATO. It was signed in Manila. The purpose of the organization was to prevent communism from gaining ground in the region.


BRICS, which stands for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, is an economic, political and regional cooperation organization, with some of the leading economies of the world.  Established in 2009, BRICS has contributed to the economic infrastructure of the world with significant growth and industrialization. This organization is most appreciated for giving birth to a ‘South-South’ cooperation.


Facts about G20 Summit

  • The G20, short for “Group of 20”, is made up of 19 countries: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States, plus the European Union.
  • Together, members account for roughly 85% of the world economy; that’s around three-quarters of global trade and two-thirds of the world’s population.
  • The G20 started in 1999, following the Asian financial crisis, as a forum for finance ministers and central bank governors from the major developed and emerging economies to discuss global financial issues.
  • Amid the global financial crisis in 2008, it grew into the leaders’ summit, a place where presidents and prime ministers could get together for two days to try to solve the world’s economic problems.


The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is an organization that is built on the ground of promoting intergovernmental cooperation, such as economic, political, security, military, educational and sociocultural integration. It has a total of 10 members.


List of East Asia Summits

Date Host Country
14 December 2005 Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur
15 January 2007 Philippines, Mandaue
21 November 2007 Singapore
25 October 2009 Thailand
30 October 2010 Vietnam, Hanoi
18–19 November 2011 Indonesia, Bali
9–10 October 2013 Brunei
12–13 November 2014 Mayanmar
21–22 November 2015 Malaysia
6–8 September 2016 Laos
13–14 November 2017 Philippines
14–15 November 2018 Singapore
4 November 2019 Thailand ,Bangkok
14 November 2020 Vietnam
November 2021 Brunei


The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.


Headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Organization of Islamic Cooperation

Member states: 57

It’s an organization which represents Muslims from across the globe and voices their economic, political and social concerns on an international level. It is the largest inter-governmental body – second only to the United Nations.

IDA World Bank

International Development Association financial institution that provides grants and loans to the poorest countries of the world that are in the developing stage.

Iran Action Task Group (IAG)

It was formed by the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo in order to coordinate and run State policy towards Iran. It was created on August 16, 2018. The formation of this group was prompted after the US pulled out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) which was the nuclear accord made with Iran on July 14, 2015.

Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

FATF is an intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1989 by the G7 nations with the goal to combat money laundering and terrorism financing. It is headquartered in Paris, France.

WIPO Facts (World Intellectual Property Organization)

  • WIPO is one of the specialized agencies of United Nations
  • WIPO was established to promote and protect intellectual property across the globe through cooperation with countries and international organizations
  • WIPO initiated its operations on 26th April, 1970.
  • WIPO administers 26 international treaties regarding intellectual property issues.

 List of Secretaries-General of Arab League

Name Nationality Term
Abdul Razek Azzam Egypt 1945  -1952
Abdul Khlek Hassouna Egypt 1952 – 1972
Mahmoud Riyadh Egypt 1972 – 1979
Chedi Klibi Tunisia 1979 – 1990
Dr. Ahmad Esmat Abd al Meguid Egypt 1991 – 2001
Amr Moussa Egypt 2001 – 2011
Nabil el-Araby Egypt 2011 – 2016
Ahmed Aboul Gheit Egypt 2016 –  Present

 International Organizations for Gender Equality

Name Year of Establishment
United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women) 2010
Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID) 1982
Womankind Worldwide 1989
Center for Reproductive Rights 1992
Plan International 1937
Women for Women International 1993
Equality Now 1992
Women’s Environment and Development Organization 1990
Men Engage Alliance 2004
Global Fund for Women 1987
Rise Up 2009
MATCH International Women’s Fund 1976
Gender at Work 2001
European Women’s Lobby 1990
European Institute for Gender Equality 2006
Gender Equality Resource Center 2013
Amnesty International 1961
International Alliance of Women 1904
Human Right’s Watch 1978
Abaad Center for Gender Equality (Abaad MENA) 2011

 Bread for the World Institute

*Bread for the World is a non-partisan, Christian advocacy organization based in the United States that advocates for policy changes to end hunger. Bread for the World provides resources to help individuals advocate to end hunger, which might include writing personal letters and emails to members of Congress, meeting with their members of Congress, and working in coalition with others.

 International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)

General Information

Formed:                                September 1923

General Secretary:              Jüugen Stock

President:                             Kim Jong Yang

Headquarters:                      Lyon, France

Member Countries:            194

Official Languages:               Arabic, English, French and                                                Spanish.

Total Global Staff:                1000+ (police & civilian)


Formed in 1956, the INTERPOL is an international police organization which ensures maximum cooperation between police authorities from its 194 member countries across the world. The organization does not have a formal police force and instead focuses on information sharing. Wherever INTERPOL operates, it remains politically neutral and acts within the legal confines of the member countries.


INTERPOL is a successor to the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) which was established in 1923. It acts as a coordinating center for information on international criminal matters. The organization was reconstituted in 1956 as INTERPOL.

 Focus of INTERPOL

The INTERPOL focuses on fighting global crime across three main areas:

  1. Terrorism
  2. Cybercrime
  3. Organized Crime

Functioning of INTERPOL

The General Secretariat of the INTERPOL is the coordinating body for all policing and administrative activities of INTERPOL.

Each member country has a National Central Bureau, and there are seven regional bureaus worldwide to facilitate the operations of the organization. These are in,

  1. Argentina (Buenos Aires)
  2. Cameroon (Yaoundé)
  3. Côte d’Ivoire (Abidjan)
  4. El Salvador (San Salvador)
  5. Kenya (Nairobi)
  6. Thailand liaison office (Bangkok)
  7. Zimbabwe (Harare)

Nineteen police databases are managed by the INTERPOL, which have information on crimes and criminals regarding their names, fingerprints, documents such as passports etc. This information is accessible to member countries to facilitate investigations.


INTERPOL officials help member countries in a number of activities ranging from field operations and investigative support to training and networking.

Research into international crime and related developments are also focused on within the organization.


Secretaries-General of Commonwealth of Nations – changeable

 Name Country Tenure
Arnold Smith Canada 1965-1975
Sir Shridath Guyana 1975-1990
Chief Emeka Anyaoku Nigeria 1990-2000
Don McKinnon New Zealand 2000-2008
Kamalesh Sharma India 2008-2016
Patricia Scotland Britain 2016-present


Origin of the Commonwealth

The commonwealth was created in 1926 through the Balfour Declaration of the Imperial Conference where it was recognized that these dominions (semi-independent countries) will be given equal status – it was an association of 8 sovereign independent states which later grew to include more states. First members included:

  • United Kingdom,
  • Canada,
  • Australia,
  • New Zealand,
  • South Africa,
  • Irish Free State,
  • India
  • and Newfoundland.


Organizations in Pakistan

CHASNUPP Chashma Nuclear Power Plant
APSMA All Pakistan Cement Manufacturers Association
FBS Federal Bureau of Statistics
NEPRA National Electric Power Regulation Authority
SITE Sindh Industrial Trading Estate
PPHI Sindh People’s Primary Healthcare Initiative

Presidents of Financial Action Task Force (FATF)

1989-1991 Mr. Denis Samuel Lajeunesse, France (First President)
2012 – 2013 Mr. Bjørn Skogstad Aamo, Norway
2013 – 2014 Mr. Vladimir Nechaev, The Russian Federation
2014 – 2015 Mr. Roger Wilkins AO, Australia
2015 – 2016 Mr. Je-Yoon Shin, Korea
2016 – 2017 Juan Manuel Vega-Serrano, Spain
2017 – 2018 Santiago Otamendi, Argentina
2018 – 2019 Marshall Billingslea, United States
2019 – 2020 Xianming Liu, China
2020 – 2021 Dr Marcus Pleyer, Germany
2022 Raja Kumar, Singapore

FATF Member Nations

  1. Argentina
  2. Australia
  3. Austria
  4. Belgium
  5. Brazil
  6. Canada
  7. China“
  8. Denmark
  9. European Commission
  10. Finland
  11. France
  12. Germany
  13. Greece
  14. Gulf Cooperation Council
  15. Hong Kong, China
  16. Iceland
  17. India
  18. Ireland
  19. Israel
  20. Italy
  21. Japan
  22. South Korea
  23. Luxembourg
  24. Malaysia
  25. Mexico
  26. Netherlands
  27. New Zealand
  28. Norway
  29. Portugal
  30. Russian Federation
  31. Saudi Arabia
  32. Singapore
  33. South Africa
  34. Spain
  35. Sweden
  36. Switzerland
  37. Turkey
  38. United Kingdom
  39. United States


International Organizations (Headquarters & President/General Secretary)


International Organizations Headquarters President/ General Secretary Purpose
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) Beijing, China JinLiqun To support infrastructure development in Asia-Pacific region.
New Development Bank (BRICS Development Bank) Shanghai, China Marcas Pardo TroyJo To help member states, provide financial assistance, and support various projects.
Asian Development Bank (ADB) Manila, Philippines Masatagu Asakawa To promote social and economic development in Asia
Arab Monetary Fund Abu Dhabi, UAE Dr. Abdulrahman A. Al. Hamidy A regional organization to balance payments and boost regional trade/
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Washington DC, US Kristalina Georgieva ●    To provide short-term capital to troubled states.

●    Helping national governments in managing their exchange rates.

●    Oversee fix Exchange rate arrangement between countries.

World Bank Washington DC, US David Maplass Provide low interest loans and grants.
United Nations Organization (UN) New York, US General Secretary: Antonio Guterres Maintaining world peace and security.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) New York, US Tore Heattrem Child protection over the globe.
United Nations Populations Fund (UNFPA) New York, US Dr. Natalia Kanem To ensure every childbirth is safe, every pregnancy is wanted and every young child reaches potential.
United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) Geneva, Switzerland Isabelle Dirant Dealing with trade and investment issues.
World Health Organization (WHO) Geneva, Switzerland Dr. Tedros Adhanom Dealing with health problems worldwide. Protecting against diseases.
World Economic Forum Colongy, Switzerland Klaus Schwab To discuss global issues
International LabourOrganisation (ILO) Geneva, Switzerland Guy Ryder Monitoring and protecting Labour rights.
World Trade Organisation Geneva, Switzerland Roberto Ngozi Okonjo Enhancement and regulation of world trade
World Meteorological Organisation Geneva, Switzerland Petteri Toalas It is involved in international coordination and cooperation on state and earth behavior and its interaction with land and oceans
World Intellectual Property Organization Geneva, Switzerland Daren Tang Aim to protect and protect intellectual property rights around the globe.
International Committee of the Red Cross Geneva, Switzerland Peter Maurer Provide humanitarian assistance to the people of war affected nations.
United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Paris, France Audrey Azoulay To promote peace and stability around the globe through education and cultural harmony.
Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) Paris, France Jose Angel Gurria Promote world trade
United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) Vienna, Austria Li Yong It aims to advance industrialization in developing your efforts by acting as a liaison between these countries and other UN organizations devoted to this purpose.
International Atomic Energy Agency Vienna, Austria Rafael Mariane Grossi To help and motivate in research, development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Vienna, Austria Mohammad Bakrindo Regulate oil trade and price.
Amnesty International London, UK Agnes Callamard Human rights watchdog.
International Maritime Organisation London, UK Kitack Lim To regulate safety of shipping, involved in international trade.
Commonwealth of Nations London, UK Head: Queen Elizabeth II

Patricia Scotland (Secretary General)


To the intuition of World Peace Promotion of representative democracy and individual liberty

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) Kathmandu, Nepal Amjad Hussain B Sial To promote economic, social and cultural growth among member states.
Association of SouthEast Nations (ASEAN) Jakarta, Indonesia Lim Jock Hoi To enhance economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint efforts.
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Singapore Chair-person: Jacinda Ardern To promote economic growth and prosperity for the region.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Brussels, Belgium Jens Stoltenberg


Initial purpose was to protect states from communist countries.
International Cricket Council (ICC) Dubai, UAE Greg Barclay To regulate International Cricket.
Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO) Rome, Italy Qu Dongyu It aims to fight hunger, poverty and starvation in the world.
International Court of Justice The Hague, Netherlands Chile Eboe-Osuji It has 2 main functions :

to settle legal disputes in accordance with international law.

To give advice on matters brought to it.

International Olympic Committee Lausanne, Switzerland Thomas Bach Promote olympics throughout the world and make the world a better place through sports.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) Zurich, Switzerland Gianni Infantino Responsible for managing and organizing international tournaments.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) The Hague, The Netherlands Fernando Arias To make earth free from chemical weapons.
World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Avenue du Mont-Blanc, Gland, Vaud, Switzerland Pavan Sukhdev Wildlife protection
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Beijing, China Vladimir Norov Promote trade, political relations, economy, science and technology among member states.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization was created in 1954 with a focus on preserving and protecting the heritage of different historically and culturally significant sites in the world. This was also done to achieve international cooperation and develop an understanding among people of others’ cultures.

Fashion capitals of the world

  • Milan, Italy
  • Paris, France
  • New York, USA
  • London, England

Deepest Lake of the World Lake Baikal, Siberia


Non EU European Countries

  • Bulgaria
  • Romania
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Ireland
  • United Kingdom


Members of the European Union

  • Austria
  • Italy
  • Belgium
  • Latvia
  • Bulgaria
  • Lithuania
  • Croatia
  • Luxembourg
  • Cyprus
  • Malta
  • Czechia
  • Netherlands
  • Denmark
  • Poland
  • Estonia
  • Portugal
  • Finland
  • Romania
  • France
  • Slovakia
  • Germany
  • Slovenia
  • Greece
  • Spain
  • Hungary
  • Sweden
  • Ireland


Facts about European Union

  • European Union suspended military assistance to Turkey in 2019 due to Turkey’s offenses in the Syrian Civil War.
  • The United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the European Union after the UK took a vote in 2016 to leave the EU. This event is known as ‘Brexit’.
  • After Brexit, David Cameron stepped down from his post as Prime Minister.
  • He was replaced by Theresa May as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.


List of Heads of International Monetary Fund (IMF)

Name Country Tenure
Kristalina Georgieva Bulgaria 2019- present
Christine Lagarde France 2011-2019
Dominique Strauss-Kahn France 2007-2011
Rodrigo de Rato Spain 2004-2007
Horst Kohler Germany 2000-2004
Michael Camdessus France 1987-2000
Jacques de Larosiere France 1978-1987


Mottos of International Organizations

Organisation Motto
World Bank Working for a World Free of Poverty
Amnesty International It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) Animus in consulendo liber – A Mind Unfettered in Deliberation
Association of South East Nations (ASEAN) One vision, One Identity, One community
International Chamber of Commerce The World Business Organization
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) One world, One Internet
World Economic Forum Committed to improving the state of the world
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) Advancing Chemistry Worldwide
Worldwide Fund for Nature Building a future in which people and nature thrive
African Union A United and Strong Africa
International Olympic Committee Faster, Higher, Stronger (Citius, Altius, Fortius)
Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) For the Game, For the World.
World Chess Federation (FIDE) Gens una sumus; “We are one people”
International Hockey Federation (FIH) FairPlay Friendship Forever
International Cricket Council (ICC) Great Sport, Great Spirit
International Basketball Federation (FIBA) We are basketball
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) Inter Arma Caritas (In War, Charity)

First woman in space  Valentina Tereshkova

She went to space on June 16, 1963. A Russian astronaut she was, and she spent more time in space than all the astronauts of US combined i.e., 48 orbits and 71 hours.


List of Space Organizations / Companies / Agencies

Name Headquarters Year of Establish-ment
NASA Washington, D. C. United States 1958
United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs Vienna, Austria 1958
United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space Vienna, Austria 1959
Indian Space Research Organization Bengaluru, India 1969
Roscosmos Moscow, Russia 1992
JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Tokyo, Japan 2003
Canadian Space Agency Longueuil, Quebec 1989
German Aerospace Center Cologne, Germany 1959
China National Space Administration Beijing, China 1993
Italian Space Agency Rome, Italy 1988
UK Space Agency Swindon, United Kingdom 2010
Brazilian Space Agency Brasilia, Distrito Federal 1994
The Planetary Society California, United States 1980
Israel Space Agency Tel Aviv, Israel 1983
SUPARCO Karachi, Pakistan 1961