Journalism and Mass Communication (CSS Syllabus)

Journalism and Mass Communication (CSS Syllabus 2016): Candidates will be expected to display in depth knowledge of basic Journalism and Mass Communication’s concepts, Mass Communication Theories, Global / International Communication, Media and Society, Mass Media in Pakistan, Development Support Communication, Public Relations and Media Laws and Ethics.

Journalism and Mass Communication (CSS Syllabus ):

Global / International Communication

  • The Historical Context of International Communication
  • Globalization, technology, and the mass media
  • Communication and Cultural imperialism
  • Communication Flow in Global Media: Imbalance in the flow of information between North and South
  • McBride commission and its recommendations.
  • International Communication in the Internet Age: the new social media and its effects on developing world

Mass Communication Theories

  • Normative theories of the press: Schramm’s four theories and criticism on these theories
  • Media as agents of power
  • The Spiral of silence
  • Media Usage and gratifications
  • Media hegemony
  • Diffusion of innovations
  • Powerful effects model: hypodermic needle, silver bullet
  • Moderate effects model: two-step and multi-step flow of communication.
  • Powerful media revisited: Marshal McLuhan’s media determinism

Introduction to Mass Communication

  • Concept – Definitions, Need/Importance/Purposes, Types of Communication, Process of Communication, Basic Models.
  • Functions of a model, Evaluation of a model
  • Basic models in Mass Communication: o Lasswell’s Model (1948) o Shannon-Weaver model (1948) o Osgood,s model  (1954) o Schramm’s model (1954) o Newcmb’s symmetry theory (1953) o Westley-McLean’s model (1976) o Gerbner model (1956)

Media and Society

  • Mass media and social change
  • Media as a social system: The balance between interrelation and interdependence
  • Media freedom and its role for democracy,
  • The functional approach to mass media: four social functions of the media
  • Media as an awareness agent
  • Mass media and social representation

Mass Media in Pakistan:

  • Media system in Pakistan: historical, chronological, and analytical review
  • The system of journalism and the media system
  • Employer-employee relations in Pakistani media
  • Government-press relations
  • Press in Pakistan: The newspaper industry, from mission to the market
  • Electronic media: from total dependence to enormous power
  • The new 24/7 television: uses and abuses
  • The new radio: potential for change and the present performance.
  • The question of freedom and responsibility

Development Support Communication

  • Theories of development support communication with specific focus on the developing world
  • The dominant paradigm of development: historical, analytical perspective
  • The Alternative paradigm of development
  • Small is beautiful: community development as a snowball effect.
  • Globalization vs Localization
  • Glocalization
  • Social Marketing: how to infuse new ideas into a developing population Public Relations:
  • Concept of Public Relations
  • Historical development of public relations: from press agentry to PR
  • Public relation in Pakistan
  • Ministry of information
  • Press Information Department (PID)
  • Public relations and publicity
  • PR as a tool for governance
  • Private PR agencies and their structure
  • Basic methods of PR: press release, press note, press conference PR Ethics

VIII. Media Laws and Ethics:

  • History of Media Laws in Pakistan
  • Development of media regulations from British colonial era to independent Pakistan
  • Libel, Defamation and relevant portions of PPC
  • PEMRA: establishment, development, and operational mechanisms
  • Press Council of Pakistan (PCP)
  • Citizens Media Commission: need, present status, and reasons for inactivity
  • Press Code of Ethics
  • Inability of the media to develop a code of ethics as an institution The media’s quest for freedom and its inability to self regulate.

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