It is not known whether or not he made it back to China, or died on his final great voyage. During his career as a naval commander, Zheng He negotiated trade pacts, fought pirates, installed puppet kings, and brought back tribute for the Yongle Emperor in the form of jewels, medicines, and exotic animals. [28], The young eunuch eventually became a trusted adviser to the prince and assisted him when the Jianwen Emperor's hostility to his uncle's feudal bases prompted the 1399–1402 Jingnan Campaign, which ended with the emperor's apparent death and the ascension of Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, as the Yongle Emperor. Therefore, the court's Confucian scholars refused to support him and he came to rely almost entirely upon his corps of eunuchs, Zheng He most of all. Ma He grew to be seven Chinese feet tall (probably around 6-foot-6), with "a voice as loud as a huge bell." Ma He's father remained loyal to the Yuan Dynasty even as the rebel forces of what would become the Ming Dynasty conquered larger and larger swathes of China. Zheng He led seven expeditions to the "Western" or Indian Ocean. The show became a finalist of the amusement industry prestigious Brass Rings Awards by IAAPA.[105][106]. Zheng He died in either 1433 or 1435 (correct date is not known) and was born in 1371. The original tomb was a horseshoe-shaped grave. [42] On 25 March 1428, the Xuande Emperor ordered Zheng He and others to take over the supervision for the rebuilding and repair of the Great Bao'en Temple at Nanjing. [18] Zhu Di was eleven years older than Ma. Zheng He Fleet Admiral Specialty Exploration Born 1371 Kunyang, Yunnan, China Died 1433 (around age 61–62) At sea Nationality Chinese Zheng He was an ethnically Muslim Chinese figure of the Ming Dynasty, which ruled China for 276 years between the 1368 and 1644. Zheng He had made six voyages in his name and brought back countless emissaries from foreign lands to bow before him, but the cost of these excursions weighed heavily on the Chinese treasury. After Zheng He died at sea in 1433, his treasure fleet quickly faded, even though his voyages had been a success. When he was around ten, he … His successor, the Hongxi Emperor (r. 1424–1425), stopped the voyages during his short reign. The new Yongle Emperor faced serious legitimacy problems due to his seizure of the throne and the possible murder of his nephew. He played an important part in developing relations between China and Islamic countries. 16 Terms. Wang Jinghong was appointed as second in command. Xu Yuhu argues that he died in 1435, using indirect evidence. Xu Yuhu argues that he died in 1435, using indirect evidence. He apparently never found time for a pilgrimage to Mecca but did send sailors there on his last voyage. 8.1—Exploration & Interconnection. [citation needed]. Preparations were thorough and wide-ranging, including the use of so many linguists that a foreign language institute was established at Nanjing. His fleet followed long-established, well-mapped routes of trade between China and the Arabian Peninsula[49] that had been used since at least the Han dynasty. For Tang dynasty general, see, Statue from a modern monument to Zheng He at the, Zheng's name in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters, Historical documents have both phraseology. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. In modern times, interest in Zheng He has revived substantially. With a mandate to collect tribute and establish ties with rulers all around the Indian Ocean, Zheng He and his armada set forth for Calicut on India's western coast. Ma He's father and grandfather were both known as "Hajji," the honorific title bestowed upon Muslim men who make the "hajj," or pilgrimage, to Mecca. [95][96], Richard von Glahn, a UCLA professor of Chinese history, commented that most treatments of Zheng He present him wrongly, "offer counterfactual arguments," and "emphasize China's missed opportunity" by focusing on failures, instead of accomplishments. Zheng He died in the tenth year of the reign of the Ming emperor Xuande (1435) and was buried in the southern outskirts of Bull’s Head Hill (Niushou) in Nanjing. He was buried at sea, although legend says that the crew returned a braid of his hair and his shoes to Nanjing for burial. [100], The Galle Trilingual Inscription in Sri Lanka was discovered in the city of Galle in 1911 and is preserved at the National Museum of Colombo. [17], Ma He was sent to serve in the household of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who later became the Yongle Emperor. These court intrigues were a major cause of the termination of the Zheng He’s voyages. Nevertheless, the Xuande Emperor would eventually come to trust Zheng He. To thank the Celestial Wife for her blessings, Zheng He and his colleagues rebuilt the Tianfei Palace in Nanshan, Changle County, Fujian Province as well before they left on their last voyage. Zheng He was born in 1371 in the city now called Jinning in Yunnan Province. In 1433, after traveling nearly 35, 000 miles to thirty nations on seven voyages, Zheng He retired and soon died. [4], Zheng He's religious beliefs became all-embracing and eclectic in his adulthood. The three languages used in the inscription were Chinese, Tamil, and Persian. Mr. Zheng He is the namesake of the ROCS Cheng Ho missile frigate in Taiwan. Photo: Shutterstock According to Confucian tradition, the first son and his descendants should always inherit, but the Yongle Emperor was the fourth son. Zheng He would be one of his commanders during that campaign. In the People's Republic of China, 11 July is Maritime Day (中国航海日, Zhōngguó Hánghǎi Rì) and is devoted to the memory of Zheng He's first voyage. Originally born Ma He in 1371, He was captured and castrated by soldiers as a young boy. In 1961, the Indonesian Islamic leader and scholar Hamka credited Zheng He for playing an important role in the development of Islam in Indonesia. Ancient China had a massive problem in court politics. On the return trip in 1433 Zheng He died from illness in Calicut, India, and was reportedly buried at sea. [35] Over the next three decades he conducted seven of the voyages on behalf of the emperor of trading and collecting tribute in the eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans. Zheng He was born Ma He (馬和) to a Muslim family of Kunyang, Kunming, Yunnan, during the Ming dynasty of China. State-sponsored Ming naval efforts declined dramatically after Zheng's voyages. Activity: World Travelers. His given name was "Ma He," indicative of his family's Hui Muslim origins since "Ma" is the Chinese version of "Mohammad." The conservative Confucian faction now had the upper hand. Not until 1457 and the restoration of the former emperor would political stability return. Activity: An Age of Adventure. First, the Yongle Emperor who sponsored Zheng He's first six voyages died in 1424. The analysis also suggests that Arabic-speaking pilots with a detailed knowledge of the African coast were involved in the cartography.[73]. Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese admiral and explorer who led several voyages around the Indian Ocean. In 1431 Zheng sailed on his seventh and final voyage. [78], One explanation for the seemingly-inefficient size of the colossal ships was that the 44 largest Zhang treasure ships were used only by the Emperor and imperial bureaucrats to travel along the Yangtze for court business, including reviewing Zheng He's expedition fleet. The Chinese Indonesian community have established temples dedicated to Zheng He in Jakarta, Cirebon, Surabaya, and Semarang.[89]. [44], On 15 May 1426, the Xuande Emperor ordered the Directorate of Ceremonial to send a letter to Zheng He to reprimand him for a transgression. He was 28 years old. Cited in Needham, Joseph (1959). Answer to: When did Zheng He die? The main ships of Zheng He's fleet were instead 6 masted 2000-liao ships. He went on seven major expeditions to explore the world for the Chinese emperor and to establish Chinese trade in new … [72] It was originally a strip map 20.5 cm by 560 cm that could be rolled up, but was divided into 40 pages which vary in scale from 7 miles/inch in the Nanjing area to 215 miles/inch in parts of the African coast. Q: Why did Zheng He stop exploring? The most grandiose claims for Zheng He's 1405 fleet are entirely based on a calculation derived from an account written three centuries later and were accepted as fact by one modern writer but rejected by most naval experts:[74]:128, Six more expeditions took place from 1407 to 1433 with fleets thought to be of comparable size.[75]. [13] In 1381, Ma Hajji, Zheng He's father, died in the fighting between the Ming armies and Mongol forces. Another is that Zheng He continued to serve as the defender of Nanjing, dying in 1435. The People's Liberation Army Navy ship Zhang He (AX-81) is a Chinese training ship named for him. Dreyer (2007) states that Zheng He's father died at age 39 while resisting the Ming conquest. Levathes (1996) states Zheng He's father died at age 37, but it's unclear whether it was due to helping the Mongol army or due to just being caught in the onslaught of battle. In August 1399, Zhu Di openly rebelled against his nephew. What is he best known for? While Zheng He's fleet was unprecedented, the routes were not. [55] Zheng He presented gifts of gold, silver, porcelain, and silk, and in return, China received such novelties as ostriches, zebras, camels, and ivory from the Swahili Coast. The expeditions featured prominently in Heather Terrell's 2005 novel The Map Thief. Occupation: Explorer and Fleet Commander Born: 1371 in Yunnan Province, China Died: 1433 Best known for: Treasure Ship voyages to India Biography: Zheng He (1371 - 1433) was a great Chinese explorer and fleet commander. There was even a US Navy boat that was acquired for picket duty during World War II that was named Cheng Ho by its previous owner. The information in the Yongle and Xuande Emperors' official annals was incomplete and even erroneous, and other official publications omitted them completely. Construction when did zheng he die the throne and the restoration of the treasure ships, on display in Hong Kong long... 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