I remember there was the fascinating Cottages at Burghclere, which hung at home for some time before being discoloured and taken away. Figure 12: Stanley Spencer, A Village in Heaven (1937), oil on canvas, 43.5x183.5 cm, Manchester Art Gallery, https://artuk.org/​discover/​artworks/​a-village-in-heaven-206089, last accessed 1 November 2019. They preferred the Middle Dutch and Old English and Old High German “landscape”, a term referring to a scenery, which appeared in English at the end of the sixteenth century following Dutch painters’ use of landschap (see Makhzoumi and Pungetti). In the beautiful gardens and landscapes he painted which were so popular and admired as truly English, some uncanny element may be descried: huge squat massive jars, too brilliant colours, gardens overrun with vegetation gone wild smothering houses, iron scraps left to rust, strange twiglike distorted tree limbs, a bowl of captive fish solitary left on flags in front of boats, an unexpected leg of mutton in a nude painting of Patricia Preece [, ]… The leg of mutton refers to a typical English feature and institution characteristic of a typically English rural landscape. The background landscape of Love on the Moor [fig. Rob Bartram This paper explores Stanley Spencer's Hoe Garden Nursery (1955) as a constitutive part of the relationship between land, nature and cultural nationalism in the immediate postwar period. 3 Stanley Spencer, Letters and Writings, selected and edited by Adrian Glew (London: Tate Publishing, 2001). Their light is silver English light. Their greens are England's endless greens. These exemplify two manifestations of a landscape turned microcosm. Je m’attacherai à observer les deux manières de paysages de Spencer et j’analyserai dans quelle mesure ses paysages participèrent d’une aspiration toute nostalgique à un monde qui disparaissait rapidement. These exemplify two manifestations of a landscape turned microcosm. London: Tate Publishing, 2001. The N.C. Office of Environmental Education in the N.C. Department of Environment and Natural Resources was established to increase environmental literacy and natural resource stewardship in North Carolina by encouraging, promoting and supporting environmental education programs, facilities and resources throughout the state. This study will focus on Spencer’s two “manners” and analyse the extent to which his landscapes contributed to the fashioning of a nostalgic yearning for a quickly disappearing world also celebrated in E.M. Forster’s taste for “England green and eternal” (Abinger Harvest) for instance. 12Stanley Spencer most valued his figure paintings, which he found innovative and creative, and deeply regretted having to paint landscapes and still lifes to make a living. On the one hand, Spencer is tied to the (national and artistic) past, which he celebrates and recreates although at times unwillingly, on the other hand his figure production is singular and original. 3] with its decorated frame (the bridge) its fine colours (deep blue versus brown), its composition following a movement going left to right then back to front, and its bucolic, mundane, almost pastoral theme (although the swans are captured and bound) is weird and slightly frightening. “Peculiarly English”: the expression is used by a commentator in The Scotsman (9 February 1929) à propos the group of painters Spencer belonged to with his brother Gilbert, Carline, Nash, Lamb etc. One of his most famous series, commemorating the First World War, painted on the walls of the Burghlere Memorial, was presented to the National Trust by its owners Mr and Mrs Behrend in 1947, when the artist was still alive. It is this apparent paradox I will try to explore and look into. It is a way of measuring space, which is of course an extremely anthropomorphic definition designating sight as a cognitive instrument. He even drew up a family tree of his different selves (Spencer 215) and acknowledged his “conflicting wants” (Spencer 225). Stanley Spencer’s strong link with the “English” landscape is particularly obvious in his desire to be called “Cookham”, the name of his Berkshire native village. Are these man’s final triumph? Spencer slowly became a national artist acknowledged as such. Figure 8: Stanley Spencer, Christ’s Entry into Jerusalem (c. 1920), oil on canvas, 114.2x144.8 cm, Leeds Art Gallery, https://artuk.org/​discover/​artworks/​christs-entry-into-jerusalem-37832, last accessed 1 November 2019. https://artuk.org/​discover/​artworks/​adoration-of-old-men-81495. Two portraits of Patricia Preece by Stanley Spencer featured in the very first rooms acknowledging the link between his work and these artists’. Description: Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) British "Landscape Composition" pencil on paper. This was the very type of village used during the Second World War for propaganda aiming at defending the country and rallying people’s national feeling. In 1940, when Stanley Spencer painted Cottage Garden, Leonard Stanley, one of a series of garden scenes, Britain was at war. D’autre part, des paysages, des fleurs, des natures mortes, sont peints sans figures. 15]. The paintings of cottages, moors, Thames valley sites, villages tucked down hillsides, are rendered in a highly detailed realistic manner, a favourite of collectors’. was published by Phaidon in 1992. An unheimlich effect results from the seemingly impossible and weird “association” of people engaged in all kinds of hectic gestures or occupations. Landscapes of happy springs and summers in the country provided idyllic pastoral settings and villages which contrast with the often disturbing backdrops of his figure paintings. In the painting representing Patricia Preece in the nude, the leg of mutton quaintly appears as reminiscent of the estranged Hilda. One of his most famous series, commemorating the First World War, painted on the walls of the Burghlere Memorial, was presented to the National Trust by its owners Mr and Mrs Behrend in 1947, when the artist was still alive. National identities even became associated with types of gardens. Figure 19: Stanley Spencer, Mending Cowls, Cookham (1915), oil on canvas, 109.2x109.2 cm, Tate collections, https://www.tate.org.uk/​art/​artworks/​spencer-mending-cowls-cookham-t00530, last accessed 1 November 2019. What is also particularly striking and may make one giddy is his singular use of perspective: he often chose to paint from an elevated position thus favouring a high angle close to a bird’s eye view and a lot of the scenes are captured from high up. I conclude the paper with a discussion of national cultural debates in the 1950s, and particularly those relating to the emergence of gardening as a dominant social activity and the 'spirit' of urban reconstruction, which I believe Spencer makes reference to in the painting. Houses and bungalows, hotels, restaurants, and flats, arterial roads, by-passes, petrol pumps and pylons—are these going to be England? (Coe 6). It takes on incredibly new shapes and ensures him future recognition even announcing future trends recognizable in later eccentric painters and writers. offers a fascinating double portrait set against a window opening onto a churchyard looming in the background in the most uncanny way. Paula Rego’s disjointed fairy-tale characters also come to mind and are to a certain extent reminiscent of Spencer. Elles correspondent aussi à un regain d’intérêt pour le jardin anglais. A fact which also might explain why they were so popular and sold well. Cookham (and later for a time Wangford following his disastrous second marriage to Patricia Preece) was a place he inhabited but which also haunted him all his life. Land-scape—the English language can offer multiple declensions of the term as in sea-scape, in-scape town/city-scape, photo-scape—designates a limited view cut off from an unlimited space. It gave pride of place to a peaceful valley softly unrolling beneath the eye in tones of yellow and green. A fact which has not escaped Jonathan Coe in Expo 58 when he whimsically focuses on the pub to be lodged in the British Pavilion in the Brussels World Fair. 11The Resurrection, Cookham [fig. 22Spencer’s landscapes responded and contributed to the fashioning of a particular nostalgia for a quickly disappearing rural world people could still connect with, reminiscent of happy memories and times gone by (see Tinniswood). split into two distinct styles but it was also appreciated by two very different sets of art lovers: the art critics mostly commented on and took issue with his figure paintings while the public at large bought his landscapes. Shortly after leaving the Slade School of Art, Spencer became well known for his paintings depicting Biblical scenes occurring as if in Cookham, the small village beside the River … Request Permissions. 10] in which a long frieze depicts men and women of all ethnic origins engaged in embracing, kissing, talking, etc. 1Some thirty years ago I was taken to Cookham by friends and visited the Spencer Gallery and the site of The Resurrection. It embodied his desire for fusion with people, places, objects, landscapes or animals and is part of his pantheistic-like vision. in May 1933, he complained to Dudley Tooth, his gallery dealer: “As I feared everyone as usual wants my landscapes […] I am very sorry that public galleries are taking [them] as being representative works of mine” (Stanley Spencer to Dudley Tooth, letter dated 12 June 1933 [Tooth Collection], quoted in Bell 278). Les tableaux de « cottages », de landes, de la vallée de la Tamise, de villages enfouis au creux de collines, sont travaillés dans une manière réaliste très détaillée, celle qu’affectionaient les collectionneurs. Doesn’t the front cover of Norton’s Anthology of English Literature’s seventh edition, volume 2, dedicated to the romantic period, Victorian literature and the twentieth century, reproduce Swan Upping at Cookham? A landscape is man-made, the result of man’s action, so a countryside is not “natural” at all. The Stanley Spencer Gallery is an art museum in the South of England dedicated to the life and work of the artist Stanley Spencer.It was opened in 1962 and is located in the Thameside village of Cookham, Berkshire where the artist was born and spent much of his life.The gallery's collection comprises over 100 paintings and drawings, which includes a number of long-term loans. Thus, the pub and its name evoke past memories under the aegis of one of the British people’s favourite places. Les lignes de l’écriture paraissent mimer les sillons du labour. He even drew up a family tree of his different selves (Spencer 215) and acknowledged his “conflicting wants” (Spencer 225). It eventually became autonomous even if some “grand” subjects still loomed in the background: one can only think of Turner’s 1810-1812, Fighting Téméraire Tugged to her last Berth to be Broken up, clearly, the subject comes second to the majestic, sublime scenery. London: Tate Publishing, 2001. Voir la notice dans le catalogue OpenEdition, Plan du site – Contacts – Crédits – Flux de syndication, Nous adhérons à OpenEdition – Édité avec Lodel – Accès réservé, Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search, Changing/Unchanging Landscapes: Stanley Spencer’s “Peculiarly English”, Des paysages changeants/inchangés : les paysages « étrangement anglais » de Stanley Spencer, Stanley Spencer strongly felt for the English landscape and in particular for Cookham, his native village in Berkshire, which he called his “heaven”. , undated cutting, anon.,7.33.12.1 [Tate Gallery Archives Stanley Spencer collection]). , when we realize that he painted two very different kinds of landscapes. Sir Stanley Spencer, CBE RA (30 June 1891 – 14 December 1959) was an English painter. https://www.wikiart.org/​en/​stanley-spencer/​unveiling-cookham-war-memorial. The village of Cookham in Berkshire is in itself a lovely part of England, South of London, in the Maidenhead area, as idyllic and idealized as some of Spencer’s own paintings. However, as this paper makes clear, there is a complexity of personal, aesthetic, social and moral values that run through Spencer's landscape art. National identities even became associated with types of gardens. His paintings also aim at rendering its traditional views and scenes and were acknowledged as the epitome of South-West London rural landscape. Still the page I am writing on and the reader is reading today, the most ancient way of stocking up information, and one of the first circuits, also and still derives from the same word. Select the purchase 14Cookham (and later for a time Wangford following his disastrous second marriage to Patricia Preece) was a place he inhabited but which also haunted him all his life. These, which he liked so much and rated higher than all other creations, as being his true achievement as an English painter, still retain the flavour of Cookham, his—paradoxical—heaven. Shortly after leaving the Slade School of Art, Spencer became well known for his paintings depicting Biblical scenes occurring as if in Cookham, the small village beside the River Thameswhere he was born and spent much of his life. 2We know that the etymology of land-scape (land+skip, landschaft) actually points to a sight which encloses an expanse of land visible to one’s eye. https://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/​paintings/​joseph-mallord-william-turner-the-fighting-temeraire. Stanley Spencer: Rooted in an English landscape Mark Hudson sees the ordinary garden afresh at a new exhibition of Stanley Spencer’s paintings Article by The Telegraph https://www.wikiart.org/​en/​stanley-spencer/​double-nude-portrait-the-artist-and-his-second-wife-the-leg-of-mutton-nude-1937. Spencer's landscapes are wonderful, resolutely factual yet utterly entrancing. Forster, E.M. Abinger Harvest (1934). 2], in which, clearly, the subject comes second to the majestic, sublime scenery. It symbolized undying Old England, an instance of which can be seen in Frank Newbould’s 1942, The South Downs/Your Britain fight for it now, sponsored by the Army Bureau of Current Affairs [, critic described this work as “the work of a Pre-Raphaelite who has looked at Cézanne […] without a moment disparaging the intelligent applications of lessons from France […]. Looking forward to the…to the …, “To the future?” Mr. Ellis suggested. The Long Weekend: Life in the English Country House 1918-1939, Stanley Spencer’s Exceptional Turn: Self-portraits and Double Portraits, L’immobilité vive, ou « une petite étoile à la vitre du texte », Intense Immobility or “a Small Star on the Window Pane of the Text”, Tours et retournements du « moment ekphrastique » : histoires de rideaux, de mousseline et de frêles voiles de chair, De quelques problèmes théoriques : marges et cadres. The village of Cookham in Berkshire is in itself a lovely part of England, South of London, in the Maidenhead area, as idyllic and idealized as some of Spencer’s own paintings. So the issue does not concern the “reality” or the truthfulness of their models but their painterly treatment. Houses and bungalows, hotels, restaurants, and flats, arterial roads, by-passes, petrol pumps and pylons—are these going to be England? The Betrayal Stanley Spencer • 1914 Zacharias and Elizabeth Stanley Spencer • 1914 Mending Cowls, Cookham Stanley Spencer • 1915 Liliane Louvel est professeur émérite de littérature britannique à l’université de Poitiers. Stanley Spencer's paintings captured the beauty of the English countryside and also provided charming figurative portraits which established him as one of the UK's most popular artists from the first half of … So the issue does not concern the “reality” or the truthfulness of their models but their painterly treatment. Spencer, Stanley. Leena Leilitta & Sabine Kim, Cambridge Scholars, 2012), Musing in the Museum (co-ed. New York: Basic Books, 2016. They are clearly visible in the background together with graves, crosses, flowers, trees, the church porch, grass and landscape at the back. On the side of exceptions perhaps we would find the symbolical Garden of Eden doomed to be abandoned and the virginal protected hortus conclusus of the Virgin Mary. Strikingly too some of David Hockney’s portraits, like the portrait of his parents [. Stanley Spencer most valued his figure paintings, which he found innovative and creative, and deeply regretted having to paint landscapes and still lifes to make a living. This home was built in 1963 and last sold on 11/17/2009 for $86,000. One of the flaps of it reads: Stanley Spencer (1891-1959) is one of the outstanding painters of the twentieth century. An exhibition of his work was held in 1980 at the Royal Academy and then a retrospective in 1997 in Washington DC under the title Stanley Spencer: An English Vision (1997) organized by the Hirshborn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The disproportion of the limbs, the distortions of perspective, the emphasis laid on details (material, fabric, stones, bricks, and above all foliage) at times turn both landscape and people into monster-like visions. Strikingly too some of David Hockney’s portraits, like the portrait of his parents [fig. Even some of Hockney’s recent Yorkshire landscapes strikingly share formal traits with Spencer’s views of Cookham’s fields and meadows seen from a distance, for instance Hockney’s 2006, ]. London: Reaktion Books, 2016. The English village and the Thames Valley area which Stanley Spencer kept close to his heart and painted all his life, and which he practically never left—except during the wars and for the occasional trip abroad with friends—pervaded even his “figure paintings”. We publish books, journals and software under the SAGE, Corwin Archaeologists' science & artifacts form the basis of our knowledge of prehistorical civilizations, most of which seem to be in Africa, Europe, & Asia. Bell sums up a letter he sent to Desmond Chute in 1927: He usually found landscapes “dull and empty”, devoid of the spiritual exaltation of a “resurrection or a visitation…” which had “something marvellous” about it. Land-scape—the English language can offer multiple declensions of the term as in sea-scape, in-scape town/city-scape, photo-scape—designates a limited view cut off from an unlimited space. In the 1930s Spencer painted a number of erotic works on the theme of love, including Love Among the Nations (1935) and a series of highly … Although he often had to do so as a potboiler, he did enjoy sitting out painting in the open, watching and relishing the view. 20] and Freud’s Factory in North London [fig. The disproportion of the limbs, the distortions of perspective, the emphasis laid on details (material, fabric, stones, bricks, and above all foliage) at times turn both landscape and people into monster-like visions. Very surprising is the other part of his production dedicated to landscapes, flowers, and still life paintings. ©2000-2021 ITHAKA. He even went as far as signing his letters with: “Love from Cookham” (Spencer 50). 25Spencer slowly became a national artist acknowledged as such. (my translation)]. Karen Jacobs, Ashgate, 2011) et The Pictorial Third: An Essay into Intermedial Criticism (Routledge, 2018). Two very different modes of landscape painting can be descried. Paula Rego’s disjointed fairy-tale characters also come to mind and are to a certain extent reminiscent of Spencer. He kept painting rural landscapes all his life. “The rough of his native talents”, which Bell describes as the quality “of a national art (in the high Victorian sense still in existence)” (Bell 272). First, Cookham, the Thames, the village, its churchyard, such as in the famous Tate, , provide the backdrop for his favourite imaginative “distorted” figure paintings. Two very different modes of landscape painting can be descried. Actually, Burghclere stands next to Highclere where. 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