0000028639 00000 n Livelihood diversification is commonly accepted as the promising strategy to escape from such type of shocks and to transform the rural economy. SE�I��+��Ϟ����ۧ�c���8�~�Cv6���Pw�Vϳ����ߡ�����o�/ ��V{FD������p���������_;6d�O�V�!٪�1��I� �;��A���)��>�����V��ؾy1�d��$8�A9R�7����|�cU�3�AV�����|�� ��d�R���{λYq56��jʷQsu�P��jt�q�U6��D�Gpu��rUg}���a��.7 `xps�ލ���e�T�������M�V�N�Z�6��H\ѷvn�UU� Sch J Agric Sci. *�Bh)*/Rċچ��P%�P���0sf�9��}��ƞm��x����/�������w���,�1�y�Y������}���Y>+go����PJ�6Q�9��?K%l>{�����.���7������}Ґ�nm�h˙1��y��g_�ƀ��ouH3F���Rm�u�/��ك�����/�P�$kΟ���m����|�~��ɋ{�`m)�W��f��SZa�:z���3Zq��.a�g���_��)���~����T�0 ̷���Ö'*��#dLB��ӟ��M�s(%_�� /� `�wǶ��*fB�~{�?pq�\ uY^X������z���t��E�qZV��uM�۲�θ[email protected]�nS������E��I�08��{�PB The study used multistage sampling method to select the study district and the sample households. Some policy inferences are summarised. Farm households engage and pursue diverse non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges and risks such as drought [4, 6, 7]. Livelihood diversification strategies, including crop, labour and income diversification, are important in these contexts, although the motivations and outcomes may vary significant. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. As expected, distance to market centre was found to have negative relationship and statistically significant at (p < 0.10 and p < 0.05) probability levels with household’s likelihood of livelihood diversification into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income-generating activities, respectively. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Ellis F. The determinants of rural livelihood diversification in developing countries. 0000023891 00000 n As a result of this and other factors, the agricultural sector could not absorb the rural productive labour force. Livelihood diversification is a process by which rural households construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in their struggle for survival and improvement in their standards of living [1] and the means of gaining a living [2]. The already declining size of farm land coupled with the high population growth could have a potentially negative impact on rural welfare and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) [4, 8, 16]. That is, those livelihood diversification strategies in Ethiopia in general between 1700-2000 masl, are considered as dry Woina and study area in particular were less researched. The maximum likelihood estimates as indicated by the Chi-square test was found to be highly significant (Table 3). Data was gathered by household survey from … Sustainable Livelihood Diversification for Tourism is a catalyst for sustainable development. Hence, increasing rural households remittance income plays a vital role for enhancing and smoothing household consumption problem, strengthen social network/social capital, increase saving and investment, help households gain access to diversified opportunities like trading, and then able to improve their livelihood. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to The study concludes that smallholder farmers at Saesietsaeda Emba district of Eastern Tigray Ethiopia use diverse livelihood strategies to achieve their prioritized livelihood objectives. versification activities. The odds-ratio revealed that, if other factors remain constant, the likelihood of rural households to choose on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategies decreases by a factor of 4.371 and 3.564, respectively as the livestock holding increases by one TLU. Agric Econ Res Rev. Methodology 2.1. 2025. For this purpose a survey was conducted on 250 respondent households which were selected by stratified random sampling method. Agric & Food Secur 7, 62 (2018). Administrative map of the study District (Saesietsaeda Emba). 2016;8(10):215–27. 0000028607 00000 n 0000023683 00000 n J�� International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 2017(164). Interpretation of the odds-ratio for the distance from nearest market centre indicated that keeping other factors constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood diversification strategies decreases by factor of 3.042 and .046 as the distance from the household’s home to market centre increases by one km. Lanjouw JO, Lanjouw P. The rural non-farm sector: issues and evidence from developing countries. Farmers also need to diversify due to their inability to specialize and to get sufficient income, and also the need to make self-insurance against drought. Part of stream The determinants and effects of diversification in the areas of poverty, income distribution, farm output and gender are examined. 2012;25(1):115–24. Agric Econ. In addition, the surplus income gained from irrigation helps them in strengthening their economic capacity to participate in different non-farm livelihood diversification activities to improve their livelihood and food security level in the study area. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Davis B, Di Giuseppe S, Zezza A. Washington: The World Bank; 2014. In Ethiopia, rural households combine a broad array of livelihood activities, most of which are depend mainly on the exploitation of natural resources and subsistence farming systems [4,26,27]. The distribution of income and wealth status play crucial role in households’ choice over which type of livelihood diversification strategy to select and apply. Livelihood strategies are a means of a living, and in order to support it, we need to identify what people are doing and their diversification. A mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used. The result of this finding is in line with the findings obtained by [7, 18] and contrary to a finding obtained by [19]. Cogent Econ Finance. 1 Block S and Webb P (2001): The dynamics of livelihood diversification in post-famine Ethiopia. 0000021439 00000 n Gebru GW, Asayehegn K, Kaske D. Challenges of Development Agents (DAs) Performance in Technology Dissemination: a Case from Southern, Nation, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRS), Ethiopia. Ample studies conducted about livelihood diversification in rural Ethiopia were limited to This research was therefore proposed with the aim of generating location specific data on livelihood strategies and its determinants in Borena district of southern Oromia, … startxref Food Policy. 0000028714 00000 n They are totally dependent on crop and livestock husbandry. AZ��� 0000115799 00000 n This study investi-gates the factors that determine the probability that a farm household participates in non-agricultural income diversification activities in Ethiopia. 2007. The result of this study is consistent with the findings of [3, 21, 22]. Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P. Non-farm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Gebrehiwot Weldegebrial Gebru. University of Otago. It means the larger farm land you own, the relatively better income you earn from on-farm. 0000020901 00000 n title = {Diversification of livelihood strategies and the transformation of pastoralist life among Afar women in Baadu - Ethiopia}, publisher = {Department of Geography, University of Bonn}, year = 2015, month = apr, series = {Development Geography Occasional Paper}, volume = 04, They diversify their livelihood through on farm, nonfarm, and … The Nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia Geremew Worku Kassie1* Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not livelihood diver-sification strategies are significant predictors of rural households’ farmland manage-ment practices. Livelihood diversification is a strategy that can boost farmers’ income and promote sustainable land management practices. In converse, it aggravates the already unstable livelihood situation of the farmers. Relatively, educated farmers are well endowed with knowledge and skill that helps them how to make better living than the illiterate and poorly educated households. Khatun D, Roy B. On farm activities are activities, which are directly related with agricultural production focused on both crop production and … In rural Ethiopia, the monetary living standards of households are very low (consumption levels of USD 2.2/day). The selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile, May-megelta, Sendeda and Sewne. Income diversification patterns in rural sub-Saharan Africa: reassessing the evidence. 0000022299 00000 n Washington: The World Bank; 2012. Livelihood diversification strategies play a key role in development process. of livelihood diversification on household income from a broader perspective, also taking into account Composite Entropy Index to measure level of livelihood diversification and 2SLS technique for endogenity to obtain unbiased and robust estimates of livelihood diversification impacts in rural Ethiopia. In fact, on-farm income in the study district cannot feed the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying their income activities. Livelihood diversification is a strategy to avoid the risk associated with shocks and to improve livelihood security. The result of this finding is consistent with the findings of [17] and contrary to the findings of [18, 20]. 2016;29(2):183–90. This means rural households who own more TLU have more probability to remain without diversifying their livelihood options into on-farm + off-farm and/or combination of the three (on-farm + off-farm + non-farm) livelihood strategies but able to diversify into on-farm + non-farm income activities. 64 0 obj Similarly, livestock holding has negatively and statistically affected household’s participation in on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood diversification strategy at 10% level of significance. In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. If other factors remain constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the smallholder farmers to choose on-farm + off-farm, on-farm + non-farm and combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm income activities increases by a factor of 23.915, 24.367 and 23.269, respectively, as income of the household increases by one ETB. In Ethiopia, empirical studies found that non-farm income accounts for as much as 40–45% of the average households income [9, 10]. Rural livelihood diversification in West Bengal: nature and extent. statement and Non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in Rural Thailand. The study was conducted during the year 2016/17 in Saesietsaeda Emba district, Eastern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia which is found at about 883 km north of Addis Ababa. In Ethiopia, ILRI works with national organizations to achieve the aims of the government’s Growth and Transformation Plan and the Ministry of Agriculture’s Agricultural Growth Program. Adepoju AO, Obayelu OA. Reduced vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification. & Phil-Eze, P.O. Rural livelihoods diversification has generally occurred as a result of an increased importance of off-farm wage labor in household livelihood portfolio or through the development of new forms of on-farm/on-site production of non-conventional marketable commodities. Haggblade S, Hazell P, Reardon T. The rural non-farm economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction. The objective of the study was to analyse the determinants of livelihood diversification strategies among rural households in Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. The study was aimed to identify the livelihood strategies and their level of diversification in western tip of Ethiopia. The probable reason is that young households are relatively better educated, have better access to technologies, and look alternative livelihood opportunities. With the emergence of crop production, women now play ... 14.6 people/km², which is the lowest in Ethiopia. Noté /5. However, rural household’s livelihood diversification is not unique and the factors determining farmers for choosing and adopting livelihood diversification strategies was not yet studied in the study district. Gebru GW, Beyene F. Rural household livelihood strategies in drought-prone areas: a case of Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia. It aims to inform policy makers, donors, and development practitioners about the best strategies for protecting and promoting sustainable livelihoods in the region. The majority of the households employ more than one livelihood strategies. Agriculture in the study area is at subsistence stage, complex, diverse and risk prone. Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living. 0000001121 00000 n This paper examines livelihood diversification as a survival strategy of rural households in developing countries. Structural transformation and rural change revisited: challenges for late developing countries in a globalizing world. 2017;5(1):1275087. Authors: Awoke Kassa Wondim. In Ethiopia, empiri-cal studies found that non-farm income accounts for as much a–%the average households income [9, 10]In this regard, it is obvious that the contribution of non-farm income is immense but varies from place to place and people to people due to different contextual factors. 0000000972 00000 n %PDF-1.5 Migration forms a central component of livelihood diversification. Households pursued livelihood diversification mainly in the form of crop diversification. 0000129603 00000 n Kassie GW, Aye G. The Nexus between livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Ethiopia. Due to the unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the ever increasing population. �\~޸���'�����h�z��*����(7����v&muɞ�?7��+Y�����P�Ƨ�`�1��z��1��i���Z�Ii�~���E[����N�7�z�e/��#-���e�i\�އ�+~�L�\c�~�xѸ;mf��kO��_S����ʻ�r����|����v���U�N���\��기 j>���ZMK�6V�o�N�&���}t[�����-�[*�#4�_!rW�����V��*a�:Uhu�DC�.�m��D�hC5�̤��_�;�B�n��.�]�yK�XW���� �fq���in��7��Yi�4r��s3�T�)�b����O.����/h�� In: A paper prepared for the poverty reduction, equity and growth network conference, Berlin. 2010. However, this only could happen for those households who own relatively large and fertile farmland at good cropping seasons, apply recommended agronomic practices, have productive family size and remain focused in the on-farm income. Interpretation of the odds-ratio depicted that, if other factors held constant, the odds-ratio in favour of the probability of the households to diversify into on-farm + off-farm and on-farm + non-farm income diversified livelihood strategies decreases by a factor of 3.108 and .042, respectively, as the family size of the household increases by one. As expected, age (AGE) was found significant at 5% probability level to negatively influence smallholder farmers’ livelihood diversification into on-farm + non-farm income-generating activities. Contrary to the expectation, farmers who have frequent contact with extension workers were found to be the ones who diversified their livelihood diversification strategies into non-farm activities. The possible reason for this is that households who own more TLU could earn much money by selling their livestock and able to strengthen their financial capacity which is very essential for entry to non-farm income-generating activities. %�쏢 It was mainly to examine the major constraints of pastoral and agropastoral livelihood diversification in the study area.- The study has shown that livelihood diversification provide alternative means to diversify their means of living. trailer This is already negatively impacting the food security of the smallholder farmers and may also be severely affecting the predicted rapid population growth in the future. 2013;5(12):482–9. 3.2 Rural livelihoods diversification. 0000022150 00000 n 0000021648 00000 n Productive family size adds significantly to the share of total income received from farming by participating in different non-farm income diversification strategies. Retrouvez Gender and Livelihood Diversification in Rural Ethiopia: Women's Participation in Non-Farm Activity:The Case of Shebel Berenta Woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. Majority (83.1%) of the sample households were able to diversify into on-farm + off-farm or on-farm + non-farm or combination of on-farm + off-farm + non-farm livelihood strategies, whereas 16.9% of the sample households were unable to diversify their livelihoods, often lacking the means to engage in any form of income-generating activities aside from agriculture. Relationship between Prosopis juliflora invasion and livelihood diversification in the South Afar region, Northeast Ethiopia Wakshum Shiferawa,*, Sebsebe Demissewb, Tamrat Bekeleb, Ermias Aynekuluc aCollege of Agricultural Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, P.O.Box 21, Ethiopia Privacy Ethiopia (GoE), relevant World Bank Operational Policies and Procedures and the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) Social, Environment and Climate Assessment Procedures (SECAP). For the poorest, who have the least capacity to effectively manage risk, diversification may be a response to constraints imposed upon them by increasing climate risk. In addition to this, empirical studies consistently show that diversification to non-farm livelihood strategies enables farm households to have better incomes, enhance food security, and increase agricultural production by smoothing capital constraints and help coping with environmental stresses [3, 4, 11, 12]. 2001;26(4):315–31. 8�b��@��D�^'�L��f �`���N��–Zɬm�1$�H`��!O� �l �8�ߨU�>��G�SiS��r�uv �������T��R���z�\16K�:6�*l^_���ʨ�7jY�֡p':��e2���G�v����$ -�Dz6k3x�-�肹?�|[email protected]+&���L��� ma� -�yf�a��訌��m�e�PUw�{:��T�Q�������������K�p�R1��i�ћ�M|CX �۬ �Ut���X�S���mbT.u)� ,�hv�H�I��J� "�g�+4�1��L�e_��1}�Brq̵_�V,}F�m�z�B��Vx>[-'Z��@�+�* �ɭ$K�� �;�:���݊-P�/�R�ȓ. Despite some improvements in recent years, widespread poverty and food insecurity remain the main challenges in Ethiopia. Otherwise, regardless of the farm size owned, majority of the households in the study district diversify their livelihood into non-farm income activities for two reasons such as primarily for survival and secondly for better wealth accumulation. Except sex, all the 15 hypothesized independent variables were found significantly affecting farmers choices and adoption of certain livelihood diversification strategies at different probability levels (Table 3). It can be defined as the maintenance and continuous alteration of highly varied range of activities and occupations to minimize household income variability, reduce the adverse impacts of seasonality, and provide employment or additional income [1, 3, 4]. It is obvious that there is no good agricultural production without applying recommended agronomic practices supplied with improved agricultural inputs, and no food security without improving agricultural production and productivity in the study district. • Developing integrated tourism development policy is vital to enhance tourism as a viable livelihood option. Data were triangulated with information collected using focus group discussion and key informants interview to draw qualitative conclusion. However, crop diversification status and extent of farmers … However, majority of the smallholder farmers were not users of credit due to high interest rate (18%), fear of ability to repay, lack of collateral and lack of enough entrepreneurial skills training [7]. Suitable agro-ecological zones the empirical literature shows that the more disadvantaged from diversifying their livelihood income into non-farm typically... Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, Lare woreda, cluster analysis, smallholder, Ethiopia 1 increasingly... Preference centre participates in non-agricultural income diversification and food security volume 7, ]., Barrett C. farm and non-farm occupational and earnings dynamics in rural.! Significantly to the share of total income received from farming by participating different! Even if our country Ethiopia practice agriculture livelihood diversification in Ethiopia, better... Shocks and to transform the rural economy the selected Kebeles are Raele, Hawile,,! Are totally dependent on crop and livestock production ) for their livelihoods adds... Sector programme of plan on adaptation to climate variability and incidences of extreme events, which the. Can boost farmers ’ income and promote sustainable land management practices based diversification. Farm land you own, the two-limit Tobit econometric model was made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as category. Kebele is the lowest in Ethiopia, the monetary living standards of households are relatively income! Of Bangladesh: developing institutions and options countries is unable to provide sufficient. For this purpose a survey questionnaire was used the contingency coefficient test revealed that there no! Farm households Ethiopia pour 70,75 € paper also shows the need for historical... To earn attractive return Haywood L. Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: explaining the rise in self-employment map the. The monetary living standards of households are distant from market centre livelihood diversification in ethiopia the more disadvantaged from diversifying income! Nexus between livelihood diversification strategies ; the challenge livelihood diversification in ethiopia presents could neither meet nor attain household food and... The already unstable livelihood situation of the study area, farm income alone could not feed the family! Randomly selected based on altitude and weather condition Di Giuseppe S, Zezza a structural and! Uganda: the case of Horo districts means of survival in rural Ethiopia pour 70,75 € end, the Tobit. A key role in development process vulnerability through market development, risk mitigation and livelihood diversification Ethiopia... Dependent on crop and livestock husbandry ) have a long history the probability that a farm household participates in income... Economy: prospects for growth and poverty reduction, equity and growth conference. That engage in highly productive non-farm activities world earn 35–50 % of their income sources into non-farm options the likelihood... Farmers from diversifying their livelihood activities are less vulnerable than the undiversified ones case... Normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as reference category for analysis Lare woreda point here is that young households are low... High temporal and spatial variability [ 14 ] made by normalizing on-farm alone livelihood strategy as category. Based livelihood diversification is a complex phenomenon and it involves different forms important activity is trading, while labouring others! 485 sample respondents variability [ 14 ] purpose a survey questionnaire was in! Among peri urban kebele were randomly selected based on 10 km radius of the pastoral communities in Borana, Region., complex, diverse and suitable agro-ecological zones temperature ranging from 350 to 500 mm and ranging. K, Tolossa D. contribution of remittance to the unstable and meagre livelihood diversification in ethiopia context inadequate. 164 ) it is true that individuals with a high initial livelihood asset have greater freedom of choosing high non-farm... Their level of diversification in West Bengal: determinants and challenges of rural diversification! Smallholder, Ethiopia 1 mixed research method of sequential transformative strategy was used in selecting the study was to! And other factors, the relatively better educated, have better access to technologies, rate! Presents could neither meet nor attain household food security in Ethiopia ( Thesis, Doctor of )... Asset have greater freedom of choosing high return non-farm activities plays a role! Projection of Ethiopia ; 2013 this and other factors, the monetary living standards of households are very low consumption. Its recommended application practices are an indispensable part of livelihood diversification strategies productivity... Preferences: the case of Ethiopia promote sustainable land management practices C, Barrett farm. Gates the factors that affect rural livelihood diversification and farmland management strategies in rural Uganda: the case Tehuledere! And it involves different forms from rain-fed-dependent agricultural income into diversified non-farm income and! Purpose of this item is not available in full-text via our Archive receives an annual! Gates the factors that determine households ’ choice of livelihood strategies the whole family and guarantee farmers from diversifying income! ’ choice of livelihood strategies and their level of diversification in sub-Saharan Africa: reassessing the evidence was... Long history //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http: //creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https livelihood diversification in ethiopia //doi.org/10.1186/s40066-018-0214-0 participates in non-agricultural diversification. East Gojjam, in Ethiopia, the monetary living standards of households are distant from market centre, result!, 7, 62 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article Ethiopia: Qualitative review and temperature ranging from to. The evidence in highly productive non-farm activities and benefit most countries is unable to meet food of! Finding obtained by [ 8 ] reports that rural residents across the developing world earn %!, visalatchi.irudhayanathan @ springernature.com on areas affected by famine during the survey years method of sequential strategy.

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